ROBERT DODSLEY, (1703-1764) was born at Mansfield, and brought up to work in a stocking-frame, but being fond of books he cultivated his taste and bearing, and became footman to a lady in London. In this position he had spare time to devote to studies and self-improvement, and he wrote and published a small volume of poems. He attracted the notice of Pope, who patronised him, and he printed other efforts, including "The King and the Miller of Mansfield." He saved sufficient money to commence business in a small way as bookseller, and then he became a publisher. Tho inscription on his tombstone at Durham says, "who as a man was scarce exceeded by any in integrity of heart, and purity of conversation and manners."

THE EARL OF CHESTERFIELD, K.G., (d. 1773 aged 78), called "the celebrated Earl," was distinguished for eloquence, wit, and courtesy, but not for his morals. His "Letters" to his natural son correspond to his life. He was one of the principal Secretaries of State, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, etc., but was compelled by ill-health and deafness to retire from public life. Dr. Johnson's letter to him will never be forgotten:— "Seven years, my lord, have now past, since I waited in your outward rooms, or was repulsed from your door." Such was the doctor's rejection of condescending patronage. The Earl's remains were interred in Shelford Church, where is a mural brass plate.

ANDREW KIPPIS, D.D., F.R.S., and F.S.A., (1725-1795) was born at Nottingham, where his father was in the hosiery silk trade, but upon his death the son was sent to Sleaford, to reside with his grandfather. He was educated at the Sleaford Grammar School, and thence went to Northampton, and studied five years under Dr. Doddridge, in training for the ministry. In 1746 he became a minister at Boston, and later at Dorking, and afterwards for forty-two years at Westminster. Here he wrote many books, and acquired such a reputation for scholarship that the University of Edinburgh conferred upon him its D.D. and he became a Fellow of the Royal Society. An edition of the "Biographia Britannica" was published under his supervision. He was an indefatigable worker, and was helpful to others. (Gilbert Wakefield, see 'Families.')

SAMUEL AYSCOUGH, (1740 or 1745-1804), was bom in Nottingham, and was the grandson of the printer —William Ayscough—who introduced printing into the town. He was an ordinary shop assistant, but going to London he obtained a situation in the shop of Mr. Rivington, Bookseller, and then, becoming assistant in the cataloguing department under the principal librarian of the British Museum, he found his forte, and became skilled as an index maker. He in 1780-2 compiled a catalogue of the undescribed manuscripts in the British Museum. This was done on an original plan, the items being written on 20,000 separate slips of paper, and then these brought together in due order. He studied for the Church, and was ordained, and became curate at Normanton-on-Soar, near Loughborough; but it was in indexing that he excelled, and to this work he returned. He made a concordance of Shakespeare, for which he received two hundred guineas, and many important compilations were undertaken by him, especially in connection with the British Museum. He preached before the Royal Society on the Wonderful Works of God, and wrote articles in the "Gentleman's Magazine," and other periodicals. (Godfrey).

"Time is of more value than type, and the wear and tear of temper than an extra page of index." (Busk).

HENRY FYNES CLINTON, (1781-1852), was born at Gamston, near Retford, and was educated at Southwell, Westminster and Oxford. He became the adopted son of a Mr. Gardner, a wealthy man, and was returned as a member of Parliament for Aldborough, which office he retained a number of years, but his heart was in the study of ancient literature, to which he devoted several hours a day. In 1824 he published a great work on Greek Chronology, which was a monument of his untiring industry, and twenty years afterwards (1845) he published a like work on Roman History. Much of his time was spent at Cromwell, where his father was Rector.

Matthew Barker

MATTHEW HENRY BARKER, (1790-1846) in 1835 published "Walks round Nottingham," by A Wanderer. He was then, and from 1827 to 1838 editor of "The Nottingham Mercury." Appended to his book are "Legend of the Fair Maid of Clifton;" "Legend of St. Ann's Well;" "Reform Riots," 1831. Under the name of "The Old Sailor," which his early life justified, he wrote "Sea Tales." George Cruickshank illustrated his works, and Barker contributed to Cruikshank's "Omnibus." (Godfrey).

WILLIAM DEARDEN was a printer and bookseller at No. 3 Carlton Street, Nottingham, the premises now occupied by Messrs. J. & H. Bell, Ltd., but he was more than is ordinarily implied in the words named, for he was a man interested in science, and took steps to promote it. Thus he in 1839 and afterwards, published "Dearden's Miscellany," a monthly magazine, endeavouring therein to combine local talent with general interest, and thereby giving some offence in letting the articles contributed speak for themselves rather than depending on the persons contributing. He sought also to make the magazine a convenient book of reference for contemporary inventions and the advance of science. Of this magazine Mr. Dearden was the editor, and contributions appeared from the Rev. H. Alford, (Vicar of Wymeswold, and afterwards Dean of Canterbury), Richard Howitt, Thomas Ragg, Sidney Giles, and other local writers. He published a number of books.

Thomas Bailey

THOMAS BAILEY, (1785-1856) Nottingham, was the son of Philip Bailey, and in his early life, living in Coalpit Lane, was connected with the silk stocking trade. In after life he wrote:—"Necessitated under every circumstance to depend solely on my own exertions for support; upon my own character for recommendation; owing to no-one on earth anything that I am conscious of more than the reciprocal obligations of social life, (except my worthy parents, to whose precepts, prayers and example I am always proud to acknowledge, under Heaven, I am indebted for everything that is valuable in my character, or praiseworthy in my conduct), I could not now submit myself upon the name or fame of any individual whatsoever." He offered himself in 1830 as a candidate for Parliament, but was unsuccessful. In 1832 he appears in the Directory as a Wine Merchant, in Wheeler Gate, doubtless the Moot Hall premises. In 1836 he became a Town Councillor. In 1840 he removed to Basford House, where "Festus " was written by his son, the Father taking an active part in connection with the Board of Guardians and the Highway Board. In 1853 he published the "Annals of Notts." and history of both County and Borough. In 1845 he became the proprietor of the "Nottingham Mercury," a weekly newspaper. He was the author of thirteen works, and as a writer of prose and poetry acquired considerable influence. His greatest honour was that he was the father of the author of "Festus," and exercised a powerful influence in training the poet's mind. His grave-stone in Basford Old Cemetery is in a dilapidated condition, and ought to be restored.

JOHN TAYLOR, (1781-1864) publisher, London, was born at Retford, where his father was bookseller, printer, auctioneer, etc. He was sent to the Retford Grammar School, where he learnt Latin and Greek, and thus laid the foundation for his subsequent acquirement of a knowledge of several languages. Having served apprenticeship to his father, he afterwards went to London, and became an assistant in the house of Lockington, then a publisher, and after a period of service he joined in partnership with a young man named Hassey, in Fleet Street, and a good business as publishers was got together, including publishing for the University of London. He in 1813 published "A Discovery of the author of 'Letters of Junius'" being the first to identify Junius with Francis. He became proprietor and Editor of the "London Magazine." He wrote and published many books on the "Currency;" "Foreign Exchange;" "The Great Pyramid: why it was built," "The Battle of the Standards;" "Light shed on Scripture Truth, by a more uniform translation," and many magazine articles. He died in London, but was buried at Gamston, three miles from Retford, and the London University erected his tombstone there. (F. C. Atton).

JAMES TAYLOR, (1788-1863), brother of the foregoing, was born at Retford, and removed to Bakewell, where he lived as a Banker. He wrote and published six books or pamphlets on the "Money System of England from the Conquest;" "The Currency;" "Thoughts on Popery, Protestantism and Puseyism;" "Political Economy;" "The power of the Human Soul of discovering Truth and detecting error," etc.

THOMAS MILLER, (1808-1874), a basket maker, born at Gainsborough, resided in Nottingham three or four years. He was the author of many books of fiction and poetry, including "Gideon Giles, the Roper," "Godfrey Malvern," "Lady Jane Grey," "The Old Town," etc. "A History of the Anglo-Saxons," in Bohn's Illustrated Library, has gone through several editions. "English Country Life," (1850) shows him as a lover of Nature and rural scenery. He became a small bookseller in London. When he resided in Nottingham, in the early thirties, his literary acquaintances were the Howitts, the Baileys, and others. He was a friend of Thomas Cooper, the Chartist, who wrote of him, "Although he had written more than fifty books, he fell into-the deepest poverty in his last days. Mr. Disraeli compassionately sent him £100 from the Treasury whilst he was on his death-bed, but it nearly came too late." He died in London, where he had long lived. (Godfrey).

Mary Howitt
Mary Howitt

The HOWITTS. William, (1792-1879), and Mary (1799-1888) Howitt were among the pioneers in the education of the common people in the first half of the last century, for they were lovers of nature and quietness, being members of the Society of Friends. Their tastes were so similar that their honeymoon was spent by taking a five hundred miles walking tour, quietly botanizing all the way, and in 1823 they published a joint volume, "The Forest Minstrel.'' He was a Chemist and Druggist, first in Lower Parliament Street, Nottingham, (the site of the shop being now a part of the Victoria Station) and later, on South Parade, the site of the shop now being a part of Smith's Bank, and the room where the books were written being appropriately a part of the City Education Office—next door to Mr. Kiddier's shop. In summer-time they had a cottage at Wilford.

One of the best books that William Howitt published at this time was "The Book of the Seasons, or the Calendar of Nature," as seen in the wondrous rotation in the field, the garden, birds, fishes, insects—a book which after nearly a century is still in season. The books the couple wrote were numerous. He wrote twenty-two books, and she thirteen, the distinguishing feature being the charms of Nature, presented in history, poems, tales, novels, magazine articles, in many forms over many years. Mary continued writing for children nearly half a century. "The Spider and the Fly," can never die.

HOWITT, G., see " Naturalists,"

RICHARD HOWITT, who died in 1869, aged 69, was a brother of William, and carried on the chemist and druggist business in Nottingham. He wrote several books, and many stray lyrics and sonnets. He went to Australia in 1839, and returning five years later published a book "Impressions of Australia." He settled at Edingley, near Southwell.

Spencer T Hall

Dr. SPENCER T. HALL, (1812-1885), was born at Sutton-in-Ashfield, where he had a very limited education, being set to work at seven, and at eleven he was toiling in a stocking frame. Running away from home, he got into the offices of the "Mercury," a Nottingham newspaper, where he received four or five shillings a week wages. He learned printing, married, and, returning to Sutton, became postmaster, and had a small printing press. He afterwards went to York, and to Sheffield in connection with the local newspapers. He published a small book called "The Forester's Offering," and so became known as "The Sherwood Forester." "Rambles in the Country" by the Sherwood Forester followed. In 1846-7 he resided at Wilford, and published "The Upland Hamlet," and other poems. He lectured on Mesmerism, with doubtful success. "The Peak and the Plain," "Biographical Sketches" (1873) and other books followed. Always a rolling stone, always poor, he had ability and poetic feeling, and told well the charms of Sherwood Forest:

"O with what joyfulness we hail
These hills o'erlooking Newstead's Vale."

He died at Blackpool.

REV. F. S. WILLIAMS, (d. 1886), who was associated with Dr. Paton in the Nottingham Congregational Institute, was the author of several books. (1) "Our Iron Roads, their History, Constitution, and Administration." (2) "The Midland Railway; its Rise and Progress." (3) "An illustrated book of the Midland Railway for the use of American Visitors." (4) "Nottingham: Past and Present," with twenty-seven photographic illustrations. Of the second-named book, eight thousand copies were sold.

REV. SAMUEL COX, D.D., (1826-1893), was from 1863 to 1888 Minister of the Mansfield Road Baptist Chapel, Nottingham, but it was as a theological writer that he was best known. He became editor of "The Expositor," a monthly magazine, and so directed twenty volumes, having a distinguished staff, including such men as Drs. Magee, Farrar, Marcus Dods and Professor Robertson Smith, the object being the expounding of the scriptures honestly and intelligently. He had the offer of the degree of D.D. from three Universities, and accepted St. Andrew's. He wrote thirty volumes. He is buried in the Nottingham General Cemetery.

Samuel Butler

SAMUEL BUTLER, (1835-1902), was born at Langar Rectory. His father, the Rev. Thomas Butler, M.A., F.R.G.S., was presented to the benefice by the King, it having been forfeited through simony, and the new rector continued forty-two years. Samuel's grandfather was Dr. Samuel Butler, of Shrewsbury School, afterwards Bishop of Lichfield, and his father requiring that he (Samuel) should take holy orders, to which he objected, he emigrated to New Zealand. Having acquired a moderate fortune, he returned to England, and settling in London as an artist, painted with such success that he was admitted to the Royal Academy—one of his paintings is in the Tate Gallery. He then devoted himself to literature, and became the author of many books and papers on Darwinism, Shakespeare, Italy, Sicily, and other subjects; the Life and Letters of his grandfather; a short Bibliography of his works occupies five pages in a book entitled "Samuel Butler, author of Erewhon (1835-1902), a Memoir by Henry Festing Jones," in two volumes, occupying together 1,000 pages. He was also a musician.

One of his books, "The Way of All Flesh," is a novel, but it really shows him as a brilliant satirist, for it is autobiographical. This he began to write about 1872, and was engaged upon it intermittently until 1884. The story is of Langar, near Bingham, where he was born. It is called in his book Battersby-on-the-Hill, and the assumed Ernest Pontifex is really Samuel Butler, and the father who ought to hold the evangel of love is presented not only as being hidebound with exploded dogmas, but his method of bringing up his children is harsh and unjust; and the mother is represented as assenting. Here we have a very painful aspect, and a difficult one to adjust, because the reputation of the father has survived in the village of Langar as being that of a kindly-hearted, generous man, to whom the people were much attracted, and that of the son as being otherwise. We are not now concerned with the doctrines held, nor with the pendulum violently swinging in the opposite direction in the opinions held by the son, but we are concerned with a son thirty years afterwards writing about the conduct of his father and mother and presenting it in an exceedingly objectionable form, and then for some years afterwards periodically touching it up, for his life was soured, and having written what he did directing that it should not be published until after his death, when of course nobody could protest or explain. I had to steal my own birthright," he wrote, "I stole it, and was bitterly punished, but I saved my soul alive." Old Rabbi Nathan, of whom Whittier tells us in his poem "The Two Rabbis," had better learned life's great lesson when he wrote:—

"Hope not the cure of sin till Self is dead; Forget it in love's service, and the debt Thou canst not pay the angels shall forget; Heaven's gate is shut to him who comes alone; Save thou a soul, and it shall save thy own."

RICHARD FORSTER SKETCHLEY, (1826-1911), was born of old Newark families, one of his ancestors on the father's side having been Mayor three times, and another on the mother's side, who died in 1659, is stated on the monument in the parish church to have been "twice Mayor of the loyall and unanimous (sic) corporation of Newark''; He was educated at the Magnus Grammar School, and obtaining an exhibition, he went to Exeter College, Oxford, where he became a B.A. with honours, in 1850. In 1854 he was appointed Honorary Librarian of the Newark Stock Library, and when the building was enlarged an application was made to South Kensington Museum for loans of articles for an Exhibition in order to obtain funds, and so he became acquainted and connected with that Institution, and was employed in aid of the Great Exhibition of 1862. He also acted as Secretary to a Royal Academy Exhibition, and Assistant Keeper of the Science and Art Department of the Victoria and Albert Museum (a post he held for thirty years) and as Librarian of the Dyer and Forster bequests his scholarship and knowledge was placed at the disposal of men of letters all over the country. For many years he was on the staff of "Punch," and was proud of aiding its humour.

He retired from official life, in which he had developed a character which combined largeness of heart and breadth of mind with modesty and courtesy, lovable and beloved. He wrote articles on local history, and on Magnus School-Masters, and boys who had become distinguished men. He collected materials for a record of the lives and deeds of remarkable men throughout the country, but this he did not complete, for his work was done, and having taken a morning's walk, he sat down to dinner, his head fell forward, and he was gone. "He did not see death; he was not, for God took him." (Mr. Blagg's pamphlet).

REV. JOHN STANDISH, B.A., after taking his degree at Cambridge in 1871, held curacies at Newton-in-Makefield and Lincoln, and for thirty-three years was Vicar of Scarrington with Aslockton, during which a new church was built at Aslockton, and the steeple of the ancient church of Scarrington was restored. The distinguished work of his life was that for twenty years he was the editor of the Transactions of the Thoroton Society (1897-1917) which is the Antiquarian Society for Nottinghamshire. This was done without fee or reward, and he brought to bear on the work much antiquarian knowledge accurately expressed.

Rev William Sanday

REV. WILLIAM SANDAY, (1843-1920), D.D., LL.D., Litt. D; Lady Margaret Professor at Oxford; Canon of Christ Church there; Fellow of the British Academy, Chaplain in Ordinary to the King; the author of many books, etc., was born at Holme Pierrepont, where his father was a noted breeder of Leicester sheep and short-horned cattle, for which he obtained many prizes at the Royal Agricultural and local Shows. The future professor was educated at Repton, went to Oxford, and was in succession at Balliol, Corpus, and in 1865 was elected a Fellow of Trinity, of which he became a lecturer, and was ordained in 1867. After being Principal at Hatfield Hall, Durham, he was appointed Professor of Exegesis at Oxford, followed in 1895 by the Lady Margaret professorship. In 1903 he and his wife went to Palestine, which journey was fatal to her.

He was the author of many theological books, an early one being "The Authorship and Historical character of the Fourth Gospel," 1872. Others followed. In 1895 he in conjunction with Dr. Headlam published "A Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans," which was as regards sales a great success. One of his latest was "Personality in Christ and in Ourselves," 1911. His sincerity and candour commanded admiration; his determination was to find good wherever possible. He had a face and head indicating power of thought, clearness of judgment, and courtesy in manner.

JAMES PRIOR KIRK, (1851-1922), born at Mapperley Road, Nottingham. His parents were James Kirk and Sarah Jane Kirk (nee Prior), carrying on together a millinery business at Peck Lane, Hounds Gate and Pelham Street, afterwards drawn together at 20 South Parade. He attended a preparatory school kept by the Misses Goodall (sisters of Mr. George Goodall who afterwards became a prominent citizen of Nottingham). Then for about ten years he attended a school kept by Mr. Porter. At eighteen he left this school and was articled to Mr. Rothera, Solicitor. Instead of devoting himself to the study of law, he gave most of his time to studying languages and literature. He had a great love for Greek, and all his life the Greek classics were a delight and a consolation to him.

At the end of three years for which he was articled, he was far from ready for his final examination. After a stormy scene with his father, it was decided that he should give up the study of law, which he disliked, and devote himself to literature. No success came; and when he was 27 he took a post in a boys' boarding school at Southport. After a single term here he taught for a short time at Merton, Sussex. While teaching, he was also studying for the final B.A. (London) examination. His studies were stopped by very serious trouble with his eyes. The trouble remained for the rest of his life (at intervals being very severe and painful and seriously affecting his general health).

In 1880 his father died. For about a year he devoted himself to carrying on his father's business. Then the business was taken over by two of his sisters, though he continued to give them a certain amount of assistance until the business was given up in 1914.

An uncle who carried on business at Uppingham as a Butcher and Grazier was in difficulties, and it was in endeavouring to help this uncle that he got his own affairs entangled, and suffered considerable money loss. In the hope of straightening things out he took over the grazing business, again losing money, but gaining that knowledge of farm and country life which is so valuable a part of his books. He stuck to the farming for five years and then was forced to give it up. In the meantime he had married his cousin, Lily Kirk (1886). He lived for a short time in Nottingham, then moved to Radclifie on Trent. He lived there for three years, and then, in 1891 went to Bingham, where he spent the remainder of his life. Up to this time he had written a number of plays and stories without any success. All his important work, beginning with "Renie," was written at Bingham. It was with "Ripple and Flood " that he showed himself as a master among novelists. Then came "Forest Folk," "Hyssop," "A Walking Gentleman" and "Fortune Chance." His subsequent work, as yet unpublished, was done under great difficulties, and in the midst of much suffering and trouble. After a long illness, his wife died. About this time he was granted a small civil pension in recognition of his services to literature. His elder son died of wounds received in battle. His eye troubles became worse and for long periods he was practically blind. Operations partially restored his sight, and he resumed his work cheerfully and courageously.

He died of pneumonia, after a few days' illness. (S. Fisher).