Where three or more persons in a family have in any way appeared to have been specially distinguished for usefulness, it has been thought desirable to class the names together rather than in various departments.



Sir Hugh Cartwright
Sir Hugh Cartwright

SIR HUGH CARTWRIGHT, (d. 1668), who married a daughter and co-heiress of the Cartwrights of Edingley, adhered so thoroughly to the cause of Charles I., that he was one of those who, at the siege of Newark, made themselves responsible for the King's debts, and he thereby so impoverished himself and his family that his descendants had to put forth their efforts in various departments and locations.

WILLIAM CARTWRIGHT, (d. 1781), Marnham, who married in 1731, and had five sons and five daughters, is described as a man of great energy of character, with a genius for encountering difficulties. To his energies, it is said, the public were indebted for the execution of the work at Muskham, near Newark, where the road for more than a mile was preserved from the effects of flood by being carried over thirteen brick arches. This alludes probably to the report of John Smeaton, F.R.S., (of Lighthouse fame) in 1768, which was adopted by the Trustees, Cartwright being one of them.

George Cartwright
George Cartwright

GEORGE CARTWRIGHT, (1739-1819), the second son of William, was educated at Newark, then at Woolwich; embarked for the East Indies, became Ensign, and on return, Lieutenant; then in 1760 Aide-de-camp to the Marquis of Granby; later Captain; retired on half pay, and in 1770 went to Labrador, where he remained sixteen years, largely spending his time inhunting, collecting animals and skins for export, acting as a magistrate, with uniform justice and consideration to the natives. He kept a diary in which he recorded much valuable information as to the climate; habits of birds, animals and plants; cultivation of land, etc. This diary, on his return, he published in three volumes, in which he tells not only of his observations, but also very candidly of his departures from the moral code. (This Journal has been re-published (Williams & Norton) with an Introduction by Dr. W. T. Grenfell).

In the latter part of his life Captain Cartwright became barrack master at Nottingham, residing in the house now "The Black's Head," in Broad Marsh, then a genteel part of the town. He after many years retired, and lived and died at Mansfield.

Major John Cartwright
Major John Cartwright

Rev. Edmund Cartwright
Rev. Edmund Cartwright

JOHN CARTWRIGHT, (1740-1824), was the third son of William, born at Marnham, and sent to the Grammar School at Newark. When eighteen he entered the naval service, was present at the capture of Cherbourg, leaped from the deck of a 90-gun ship under sail, to save the life of a man who had fallen overboard. He then served under Lord Howe, and later went to Newfoundland, and served five years. He was then offered a valuable appointment to go and fight against the American Colonists, but believing their cause to be just, he refused, and published a pamphlet entitled "American Independence, the interest and glory of Great Britain." He later published many pamphlets of advanced political opinions. In 1775 he was appointed major of the Nottinghamshire Militia.

EDMUND CARTWRIGHT, (1743-1823), was the fourth son. After going to Wakefield Grammar School, he went to Oxford and was very successful in writing a legendary tale in verse. He was ordained and became Rector of Goodby Marwood, in Leicestershire, where, studying the possibility of applying machinery to weaving, he produced and patented in 1788 the power loom machine for combing wool, and making ropes, and he devised many other improvements, including a three-furrow plough. He is said to have spent £30,000 on his inventions, and became involved with his creditors. He received the silver medal of the Society of Arts, and the gold medal of the Board of Agriculture. He became the domestic chaplain of the Duke of Bedford, who gave him the management of an experimental farm at Woburn. Oxford University gave him B.D. and D.D. and Parliament, in 1809, voted him £10,000 for "the good service he had rendered the public by his inventions of weaving, and as some recompense for the losses he had sustained in bringing to perfection the inventions by which the country had materially benefited."

Elizabeth Penrose (nee Cartwright)
Elizabeth Penrose

Rev John Penrose

MRS. ELIZABETH PENROSE, (1780-1837), the authoress of "Mrs. Markham's History of England," was a daughter of the Rev. Edmund Cartwright. She lived for some years with her aunts at East Markham, where she and the Rev. John Penrose met. Her "History" appeared in 1823, and held its own as a school book for forty years. She endeavoured to adapt the history to the capacities of the children, and omitted party politics, and what was cruel or revolting. She also wrote a History of France, and other books. She was buried in the Cloisters of Lincoln Cathedral.

REV. JOHN PENROSE, (1778-1859), husband of the above, was the son of the Rev. John Penrose, Rector of Fledborough, and Vicar of Thorney, near Newark. He married in 1804, and afterwards became Vicar of Bracebridge with North Hykeham. He was the author of a number of theological books.


LAURENCE COLLIN, (1614-1704), was in 1648 the Gunner or Engineer of Nottingham Castle, when Captain Poulton was Governor. He was by occupation a wool-comber, and when the Civil War was over he, through a letter from " His Highness the Lord Protector," obtained leave to settle in Nottingham, and carry on his trade of a wool buyer and jersey comber, and receive the town's freedom. His house may still be seen, No. 39 Castle Gate, and his gravestone in St. Nicholas' Church.

ABEL COLLIN, (1653-1705), son of the above, was a mercer, and took an interest in the management of Smith's Bank. He was a quiet, kindly, religious man, and bequeathed many small charities for various objects, —poor widows, debtors in gaol, coals to be sold cheap, apprentices learning trades, etc.,—but his principal object was the building of a number of small houses, which he directed his nephew Thomas Smith to carry out. That charity has, through the enterprise and judicious management of the Smith family, become wealthy and largely extended. *There are now twenty-four houses in Park Street and twenty in Carrington Street, a Maternity Home, and a Scheme for training nurses, etc.

THOMAS COLLIN, (d. 1717), was the second son of Laurence. He became an Alderman, and opposed the surrender of the charters of the Nottingham Corporation to Charles II. and James II., wherein the liberties of the Corporation were secured, and a new charter granted gave to the Crown unreasonable powers of removal. He was Mayor in 1699.

His son John became a member of the Council (1699), Chamberlain, Sheriff, Coroner, Alderman, Mayor 1713.

Fortune Collin, sister of Abel, whom he calls "my loveing Sister Mrs. Fortune Smith," was the second wife of Thomas Smith, described in the "Smith Family."


WILLIAM DENISON, (d. 1782), of Leeds, a wealthy clothier, purchased the Ossington estate, which estate descended to his nephew, John Wilkinson, who thereupon took the name of—

JOHN DENISON, (d. 1820), of Ossington, and he became M.P. for Chichester, (another account says Colchester) and subsequently for Minehead. He was remarkable in the number of his children, their distinguished ability, and the pronounced position they occupied. Of nine sons and three daughters we must notice (1) John, (2) Edward, (3) William, (4) George.

Viscount Ossington

THE RIGHT HON. J. E. DENISON, VISCOUNT OSSINGTON, D.C.L., (1800-1873), was born at Ossington. He early began Parliamentary life, and sat for various constituencies, Newcastle under Lyme, Hastings; elected for both Liverpool and Nottinghamshire in 1831, he served for Nottinghamshire, and then for Malton. In 1857 he was elected for North Nottinghamshire, and served it fifteen years, until his elevation to the Speakership of the House, to which he was thrice re-elected. On his retirement in 1872, thanks for his services were moved by Mr. Gladstone, and seconded by Mr. Disraeli. He declined to receive the retiring pension. He had served his country with a true public spirit of single-mindedness, devotion to duty, dignity in method, and with unsullied administration.

For many years he was president of the Nottingham Mechanics' Institution.

LADY OSSINGTON, (1806-1889), was daughter of the 4th Duke of Portland. One of her principal gifts to Newark was the building of a Coffee Palace as a memorial to her husband. It was opened in 1882, erected with a desire to promote Temperance, joined with the convenience of the people. It was considered a fine example of a sixteenth century tavern. The total cost of this generous help for the good of the people was estimated at £25,000. Lady Ossington also gave jewels which adorn the sacred vessels used for sacramental purposes in Southwell Cathedral.

THE RT. REV. EDWARD DENISON, (1801-1854) M.A., D.D., was the second son of John Denison, of Ossington, and in 1830, and for three years, vicar of Radcliffe, and there rebuilt the vicarage, and planted the extensive gardens. He was said to have given more in charity than he received in income. His sermons, preached before the University as well as in the village church, are said " to show as well the learned Theologian as the earnest practical Christian." (Hole). He, in 1837, became Bishop of Salisbury. When the cholera broke out he boldly encountered the disease in the houses of the poor, working both as a religious teacher and sanitary reformer. He was said to have expended £17,000 on charities, and not to have saved a single shilling from the resources, of his See.

His son, EDWARD DENISON, (1840-1870), with a view to studying social questions, went and lived eight months in Mile End Road, London, only occasionally visiting his friends. He, in 1868, became M.P. for Newark, but his health failed, for which he took a voyage to Australia, and died there.

SIR WILLIAM THOMAS DENISON, (1804-1871), the third son of John Denison of Ossington, worked on the Ordnance Survey, entered the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, went to Canada and reported on the timber supply; returning, was appointed instructor of Engineering Cadets at Clapham and Greenwich, and later was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Van Dieman's Land. In 1840 he was knighted. He arranged a system of public works. In 1854 he became Governor of New South Wales, and in 1861 Governor of Madras, where he devoted himself to the improvement of Indian agriculture. A man of strong religious convictions, warm-hearted, generous and beloved. (D.N.B.).

THE VEN. ARCHDEACON G. A. DENISON, (1805-1896), was born at Ossington, and educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. He became Vicar of East Brent, examining Chaplain to the Bishop of Bath and Wells, and Archdeacon of Taunton. Having preached three sermons in Wells Cathedral which were published, on legal proceedings being taken against him they were declared heretical, and he was sentenced to be deprived of all his ecclesiastical preferments, but this sentence on appeal being reversed, he was welcomed back by his parishioners at East Brent (1858). He became a member of convocation, and published a number of sermons and other writings. He wais Editor of "The Church Review." He was opposed to the "conscience clause'' in regard to education; advocated an advanced ritual in church services, and promoted Harvest Festivals. (Celebrities of the Century).


RICHARD ENFIELD was in 1790 appointed Town Clerk of Nottingham. He was only twenty-two years of age when he died a year afterwards. The recommendation for his appointment appears to have been that he was the son of the Rev. William Enfield, LL.D., of Norwich, an eminent Unitarian minister, who as a mark of respect was, on the death of the son, made a freeman of the borough.

GEORGE COLDHAM was then appointed Town Clerk, and the firm of Coldham Enfield, in 1799, established. It was to this firm that Henry Kirke White was articled, and his letters testify to their high character. Their office was in Rose Yard, now King John's Chambers. Mr. Coldham was at Brighton in 1815, riding in a gig with a friend when the horse took fright. Mr. Coldham was thrown out, his head pitched into a post, and he was killed. The Council erected, in St. Mary's Church, a tablet, testifying their high sense of his probity, ability, and the advantage to the Corporation with which for twenty-four years he had performed the duties of his office.

Henry Enfield (1775-1845)
Henry Enfield (1775-1845)

William Enfield (1801-1873)
William Enfield (1801-1873)

HENRY ENFIELD, brother of Richard before-named, was thereupon appointed Town Clerk, and he continued to discharge the duties of the office for twenty-nine years, dying in 1845, in his seventieth year. "To extensive knowledge of the law," says Bailey, "Mr. Enfield joined a quick perception, an elegant facile style of expression, and an urbanity of manners, which made him on all occasions, a safe counsellor, a valued friend, and an esteemed opponent." A tablet was erected in the Guildhall, and in Bramcote Church.

WILLIAM ENFIELD, (1801-1873), son of the foregoing, wais in 1845 appointed his successor, and so continued until his resignation in 1870, when the work of the Corporation had increased so much that it required a full time official. He was made an Alderman, in recognition of his services, but he died in 1873, in his seventy-second year.

His private benevolence extended over a wide field. The drawing-room at his house on Low Pavement was always available for meetings for any good cause. He was connected with many philanthropic institutions. The General Cemetery Company recorded that he had conducted their business for thirty-six years, and on his retirement he received their thanks. He was among,the first in Nottingham to take up the question of the better housing of the poor in a practical form. For fifty years he was a worker in the Sunday School.

MRS. ANNE ENFIELD, (died 1865, aged sixty-four), was the wife of William Enfield, and daughter of Matthew Needham. She was a skilled artist, and in 1854 published sketches of local scenes, the profits being devoted to the Midland Institution for the Blind. The views included the Castle; Bridlesmith Gate; Windmills on the Forest; Trent Bridge; Wilford Church, and Ferry, etc.

In the Arboretum is a drinking fountain, much resorted to by the children, the gift, in 1859, of Mr. and Mrs. Enfield. An entwined monogram of an ornamental "W" has an "E" on either side, and in the centre of the "W" is a smaller "A," and there is a quotation from Jeremiah, "Shall the cold flowing waters . . . . be forsaken?" Mrs. Enfield was the authoress of several hymns, which Henry Farmer set to music. "When Summer's sweet flowers appear," was one of them.

Richard Enfield (1817-1904)
Richard Enfield (1817-1904)

RICHARD ENFIELD, (1817-1904), was partner with his brother William, as Solicitors, in Nottingham, his residence being at Bramcote. In the University College Souvenir, 1913-14, there are three portraits given (1) Richard Enfield, "One of the Founders of the College," (2) Rev. J. B. Paton, M.A., D.D., (3) Sir Samuel G. Johnson. The interpretation of the matter is this:—The first and second named gentlemen must be braced together in regard to local University extension, Dr. Paton supplying the fire, and Mr. Enfield the tenacity in carrying out the work, and further, in January, 1875, Mr. Enfield informed the Town Clerk that he was empowered by a friend, whose name could not be divulged, to lay before the Town Council an offer of £10,000 if they would erect and maintain a University College building; and here came in the influence of Sir Samuel Johnson as Town Clerk, and the offer was accepted.

He was an active member of the Committee of the Natural History Society (1845), The School of Art, Bromley House Library, the General Hospital, the Eye Infirmary, the Midland Institution for the Blind, the Mechanics' Institution. In education matters he was ahead of his time, and was a moving spirit in the higher education first developed in the town by the work of the People's College, and then at the Mechanics' Hall evening classes, leading to the University Extension Lectures, and to the building of the University College. For thirty-five years he was an unwearied Sunday School teacher and Superintendent at High Pavement School, never absent without cause, never late. He was twice President of the Nottingham Incorporated Law Society. One of his last cherished sayings was, "Work and be thankful."


Samuel Fellows
Samuel Fellows

John Fellows
John Fellows

Sir Charles Fellows
Sir Charles Fellows

George Fellows
George Fellows

The Fellows family were for several generations prominent citizens of Nottingham, and served as Sheriffs, Aldermen, Mayors, Coroners, and in other ways were useful in Society.

SAMUEL FELLOWS was one of the Sheriffs of Nottingham in 1729 and afterwards Alderman and Mayor.

JOHN FELLOWS the elder, was Sheriff in 1753, and afterwards Alderman and three times Mayor.

JOHN FELLOWS, (1757-1823), the father of Sir Charles Fellows, was a silk throwster and merchant, whose works were in Broad Marsh and residence No. 23, High Pavement (afterwards called the Judge's Lodgings). He, in 1808, established the bank of Fellows, Mellows Hart, afterwards called Hart, Fellows & Co. He had a high reputation for business capacity, integrity and usefulness. He let the Wesleyans have a part of his garden in which to build a chapel, called Halifax Place Chapel.

SIR CHARLES FELLOWS, (1799-1860), son of the foregoing, in 1839-41 travelled in Asia Minor, and discovered valuable remains of temples and works of ancient art in marble and otherwise. He acted in conjunction with the Trustees of the British Museum, and shipped many articles regarded as treasures, and which are still in the Museum. He published "Travels and Researches in Asia Minor," and "The Coins of Ancient Lycia before the reign of Alexander." For these services he was knighted by Queen Victoria. Later in life he promoted the restoration of Carisbrooke Castle, in the Isle of Wight, and the formation of a local museum. (Godfrey).

There is a stained glass window perpetuating his memory in St. Mary's Church.

GEORGE FELLOWS, J.P., (grand nephew of the foregoing) who died 1923, in his 79th year, published a History of the South Nottinghamshire Yeomanry, (1895) in which he was Major; and of the Thoroton Society he was for twenty years Honorary Secretary, largely promoting its objects, arranging its excursions, obtaining papers to be read to its members, etc. His book on "Arms, Armour and Alabaster round Nottingham," was a valuable contribution to Archaeology and heraldry, in which he was well versed. Under him the bank established by his grandfather was transferred to Lloyds.


REV. JOSEPH GILBERT, (1779-1852), after being Classical tutor at Rotherham College, and minister at several places, came to Nottingham, and for some months lived in the Castle, which at that time (1825) was let out in apartments. He was for twenty-six years minister of Friar Lane Chapel, "the congregation," says Wylie, "having been at first formed by a respectable and wealthy body of persons." He was a man of extensive knowledge and wide sympathies, taking an interest in national affairs and humanity generally. Finding that locally infidelity was rampant, he determined to give on Sunday evenings a series of lectures on the evidences of God in Nature and of revealed Christianity. The building was crowded, each lecture occupied an hour and a half, was delivered with great earnestness, and listened to with rapt attention. Mrs. Gilbert summarises the effect thus:—"This was the work for which he had been brought to Nottingham, at the time the headquarters of the infidelity prevalent among intelligent artizans." p. 76.

MRS. GILBERT, (1782-1866), was Ann Taylor, a daughter of the Rev. Isaac Taylor, and sister of the author of "The History of Enthusiasm," and the story of her life is told in an "Autobiography and other Memorials," edited by her son Josiah Gilbert, in 2 vols., 1874. She was the author of the hymns, "Great God and wilt Thou condescend," "Jesus who lived above the sky," "I thank the goodness and the grace," etc. She and her sister Jane were joint authors of " Hymns for Infant Minds," which reached a 35th edition in 1844; " Rhymas for the Nursery," etc., followed. The praise of men like Dr. Arnold, Archbishop Whately, Sir Walter Scott, and others is a guarantee of worth. It is not given to many poets, as with Mrs. Gilbert, that sixty years after its publication a suggestion was made to her to amend the last verse of her poem '' My Mother,'' and she attempted to amend it, but without success.

Mr. Gilbert had not seen her, but fell in love with her by reading her poems, and armed with letters of recommendation from her father and mother he went from Essex to Ilfracombe in winter time on the outside of a coach, and of course he forgot to take a rug, but was warm with a purpose to offer marriage. He was not like Caesar who "came and saw and conquered," but he received sufficient encouragement, so that ultimately they were united and had thirty-nine years of happy married life.

SIR JOSEPH HENRY GILBERT, (1817-1901), Ph.D., M.A., LL.D., D.Sc, F.R.S., etc., was the son of the Rev. Joseph Gilbert. Through a gunshot accident he lost one eye. He studied analytical chemistry at Glasgow University, and from thence went to University College, London, where he met John Bennet Lawes, with whom he was associated in agricultural experiments at Rothamsted for fifty-seven years, Sir John Lawes doing the outdoor work and Gilbert the scientific testing. He suffered much in regard to his eyesight, but his wife proved a true helpmeet in personal devotion and active co-operation.

The work of the station was the testing of seeds, crops, soils, manures; the feeding of cattle, production of milk, samples taken, results published. It is said that fifty thousand samples were stored for reference.

MRS. ANN GILBERT, (d. 1907), née Gee, was daughter in law of the Rev. J. and Mrs. Gilbert before-named. When about forty years of age she commenced teaching the children of a few friends, and from this small beginning sprang an important school for girls, which for forty years exercised much influence for good. She was a woman of exceptional ability, and followed her pupils in their after life. "She got the best out of us," writes one of her pupils, "whatever it was worth, by giving of her best to us. She never stinted her efforts, or the kindly flow of her heart." She was the authoress of "Botany for Beginners: with a Tabulated List of Local Plants, and where found," "Recollections of Old Nottingham," etc. She became a recognised authority on the flora of the district, and was fond of teaching local history.


In Langar Church a very questionable use is made of the transepts which are fully occupied with great tomb monuments, so that the living people are entirely shut out, but however disposed we may be to complain, we stand in silent reverence before the tombs of the Howe family, resting in the South aisle.

THOMAS, LORD SCROOPE of Bolton, K.G., (d. 1609), and Lady Philadelphia, his wife, have a very stately tomb of black and white marble, with their effigies, over which is a canopy resting on black marble pillars. He was "Lord warden of the West Marchses, Steward of Richmond and Richmondsh[ire], and Bow Bearer of all His Ma'ties Parkes Forrests and Chases."

SCROOPE, LORD HOWE, (d. 1712), was M.P. for Nottingham, and the inscription on a well executed bust portrait tells of how he remarkably distinguished himself in the preservation of the religion and liberties of his country when Popery and arbitrary power threatened the subversion of both.

SCROOPE, LORD HOWE, (d. 1734), was Governor of Barbados. He is said to have "gained the respect and esteem that was justly due to a generous, wise, impartial, and disinterested Governor."

GEORGE AUGUSTUS, VISCOUNT HOWE, (d. 1758), was the elder brother of the Admiral, and inherited the Langar estate, but dying first, the Admiral succeeded to the estate. He was M.P. for Nottingham. Under the North-west tower of Westminster Abbey is a monument, the inscription on which tells its own tale:—

"The province of Massachusetts Bay in New England, by an order of the great and general court, bearing date Feby. 1st, 1759, caused this monument to be erected to the memory of George Augustus Lord Viscount Howe, Brigadier-General of His Majesty's Forces in America, who was slain July 6th, 1758, on the march to Ticonderoga, in the 34th year of his age; in testimony of the sense they had of his services and military virtues, and of the affection their officers and soldiers bore to his command.

He lived respected and beloved; the publick regretted his loss; to his family it was irreparable."

All the foregoing are eclipsed by the deeds, if not by the tomb, of the Admiral of the Fleet, Richard, Earl and Viscount Howe, K. G.

Admiral Earl Howe

RICHARD, ADMIRAL EARL HOWE, (1725-1799) Langar. King George II. said to him, "Your life, my lord, has been one continued series of services to your country," and King George III. gave to him on board his ship a sword and medal of honour. Both Houses of Parliament gave their thanks to him; the City of London gave its freedom, and the nation its homage. He was made a captain at twenty, and took an active part in the Seven Years War. He was appointed a Lord of the Admiralty in 1763, and two years later was promoted to the important office of Treasurer of the Navy. He was sent to defend the American coast, and later to relieve Gibraltar: became First Lord of the Admiralty in 1783, and received an English earldom in 1788. When war broke out with France in 1793 he had command of the Channel fleet, and on June 1st, 1794, he gained a great victory. He was given the Order of the Garter, received the thanks of both Houses of Parliament, and had other honours bestowed upon him. He was cautious, thorough, brave, and considerate of his men, whom he made very efficient. In the family vault in the transept of Langar Church his remains were interred, and there was great sorrow at his decease, and a notable funeral. There is a monument to him in St. Paul's Cathedral by Flaxman. (Langar is near Barnston Rail-way Station). (See Godfrey's "Churches of Notts.").


ROBERT HALL, (1756-1827), lived at Basford Hall, his works being near the site of the Midland Rail-way Station. He was a Spinner of cotton yarn, and of cotton and wool—called angola; and a bleacher. Being a scientific man he either discovered, or was one of the first to use, chloride of lime in bleaching hosiery and lace goods, so that whereas bleaching in the open air would take a month, the work can now be done in one or two days. He built for his workpeople a Methodist Chapel, which has recently been taken down. His works were accidentally destroyed by fire in 1820. He was a great walker, and every Sunday walked from his house to and from Parliament Street Chapel twice, 12 miles. He had eight children, Samuel being the eldest, and Marshall the sixth.

SAMUEL HALL, (d. 1863), worked with his father at Basford in spinning and bleaching goods, and in 1817 he invented a process of singeing off the floss on cotton goods by gassing, or passing rapidly over hot cylinders. This was an enormous success, resulting (according to Felkin) in Hall's income from this process becoming £10,000 to £15,000 a year. He was overconfident, and declined Mr. Heathcoat's offer to pay him £5,000 a year, the result being that the goods were sold ungassed, and the profit thereby lessened. He gave many licenses to work his patent, which undoubtedly was a great benefit to trade. He had another invention which was very beneficial, namely, the bleaching of starch by employing chloride of lime in its preparation. The advantage of this he gave to his brother, and

LAWRENCE HALL'S Patent Starch was a success for many years, and secured him a fortune, while it was greatly prized by housewives.

Marshall Hall

MARSHALL HALL, (1790-1857), "Hall, Marshall, M.D., F.R.S., High Pavement," appears in the Directory of 1825, and Dr. Wilkins, the Vicar of St. Mary's, and afterwards Archdeacon of Nottingham, in a letter says, "my house was situate within a few yards of his." His brother in law, John Higginbottom, Surgeon, resided at No. 4, and Mrs. Hall in her husband's memoir says, "They lived near to each other, and continually met and talked over the cases of their respective patients." Here, in 1817, he took up his abode in Nottingham, at twenty-seven years of age, and soon obtained a large and lucrative practice among the principal families in the county, including those in "the Dukeries," for which purpose he kept three or four horses. Apparently the reason for such early success was not only that his manner of dealing with patients inspired complete confidence, but he had published a treatise on "Diagnosis," or, in other words, accurate observation of every symptom in each case, with a view to the detection and distinction of the disease, followed by remedies accordingly. It had to a large extent been customary to bleed the patient, and then wait and see, a result frequently ending fatally. By the process now followed the lancet was discontinued fifty per cent. He used to call the lancet "a minute instrument of mighty mischief." At the Nottingham General Hospital, to which he was in 1825 appointed Physician, the use of leeches was diminished eighty per cent. Although he is said to have literally passed his time either riding or driving (for his was a widely spread county practice) yet he found time for many scientific experiments, and for writing many medical papers, involving much thought and research. His reputation, however, became national. The King's Physician, and President of the College of Physicians, wrote of him, "He is the rising sun of the profession; there is no one to compare with him, and he will become the leading physician in London." We cannot follow him in the twenty-seven years during which he pursued his practice in London. He read several papers before the Royal Society, for which he was elected a Fellow of that body, and the Duke of Sussex said, "the Society was honoured by numbering him among its Fellows." Strangely enough he had to encounter much professional jealousy and opposition, for it appears that a physician should not join practice, experiments, and writing papers and lectures. His income rose to £4,000 a year, but was much lessened by the time he devoted to scientific pursuits in connection with his profession. He was fond of travel; went through the United States and Canada lecturing, which occupied fifteen months, and he wrote a book on "The Twofold Slavery of the United States," in which he advocated a system of education and training joined with self and aided emancipation, placed on high national humanitarian and religious grounds, as well as on the righteous judgment of God that would follow continuance in wrongdoing. This was seven years before the war.

In his last illness he wrote Mr. Higginbottom to secure the spot in the General Cemetery where he desired to be buried, which was then in view of Basford Hall, where he was born. He was a man of very simple habits, fond of reading the Scriptures, but he would not read any other books on religion. "In the world," he wrote, "I have confessed Christ, obeying God rather than man. I have observed my profession with scruple, and honour, and energy, and have observed great industry and economy. In my spirit I have been most happy . . . . . I can truly say I have not had an unjoyous hour." He died at Brighton. The body was conveyed to the residence of his sister at Sneinton, and thence to the Cemetery, near the top entrance.

We owe much to his discoveries in connection with "The Effects of Loss of Blood," "The true physiology of the spinal marrow," "The Marshall Hall method of restoring animation in the apparently drowned," etc. More than one hundred books and papers indicate his industry. (See "Memoirs of Marshall Hall," by his Widow, 1861).

* See "A History of Abel Collin's Charity," by E. LGuildford, M.A., and Thomas Gallimore.