ROBERT de LEXINGTON, (d. 1250), of Laxton, near Tuxford, was a prebendary of the Collegiate Church of Southwell. In 1221 he was acting as a Justice in seven counties, and in 1225 was at the head of six judicial commissions. He was one of the chief members of the King's Bench. In 1240 he was sent as chief of the Justices North of the Trent. Being seized with paralysis he retired several years before his death. He founded three chantries in Southwell Minster. "The Lexington family,"says Mr. Hamilton Thompson, "were at his time the most important family in the county." (D.N.B.).

STEPHEN de LEXINGTON, brother of John, who granted him a prebend in Southwell Church, adopted a monastic life, and leaving Oxford with seven others he became a monk in the Isle of Wight. He was elected Abbot of Stanley; appointed visitor of the Cistercians, and later Abbot of Clairvaux. He afterwards founded a house of his order at Paris. He is described as a man of high character.

JOHN de LEXINGTON, (d. 1257), was baron, judge, and in cases of emergency had charge of the Great Seal. At other times he was sent by the King as envoy. In 1246 the King deputed him to protest against the payment of the large sum the Pope was demanding. He became the King's Seneschal.

In 1250, the King being in Nottingham, John took part in arranging a treaty with France. In 1255 he was the Chief Justice of Forests North of the Trent. He is described as a man brave and learned.

HENRY de LEXINGTON, (d. 1258), Bishop of Lincoln, brother of the foregoing, succeeded to the estate.

OLIVER SUTTON, (d. 1299), Bishop of Lincoln, was related to the Lexington family, but how closely does not appear. He was described as "a learned man, charitable, and free from covetousness."

ROBERT SUTTON, first BARON LEXINGTON, (1595-1668), Averham, represented Nottinghamshire in 1625, and twice later. In the Civil War he served in the garrison of Newark, for which he was made a baron, but he had to pay dearly for his loyalty, his house being burnt, and his estate being sequestrated His tomb is in Averham Church opposite to the grand Sutton tomb.

ROBERT SUTTON, second BARON LEXINGTON, (1661-1723), Averham Park, son of the above, was in the army, but resigned his commission as a protest against the illegal conduct of James II., and he voted in favour of William and Mary, and was made a member of the Privy Council. He afterwards rejoined the army, and was in 1694 envoy extraordinary to Vienna, and later was in frequent attendance on King William. He afterwards was sent by Queen Anne as ambassador to Spain where he skilfully conducted important negotiations resulting in a treaty. There is in Kelham Church a richly wrought marble monument.

THOMAS MANNERS-SUTTON, (1756-1842), first Baron Manners, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, was elder brother of the Archbishop. He succeeded to the estates of his great grandfather, Robert Sutton, Lord Lexington. He had been educated for the Bar, and became a Chancery practitioner. He was M.P. for Newark, Solicitor-General, Baron of the Exchequer, Baron Manners of Foston, Member of the Privy Council. He was buried at Kelham.

JOHN HENRY THOMAS SUTTON, third Viscount Canterbury, (1814-1877), was admitted a student of Lincoln's Inn, but never practised. He was elected M.P. for Cambridge. Under Sir Robert Peel he was appointed Under Secretary for the Home Department. He, in 1854, was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick; afterwards Governor of Trinidad, and later of Victoria.

The MOST REV. CHARLES MANNERS-SUTTON (1755-1828), Archbishop of Canterbury, M.A., D.D., in 1785 was appointed to the Rectory of Averham with Kelham. He became Dean of Peterborough; then Bishop of Norwich, then Dean of Windsor; and in 1805 Archbishop. He promoted the formation of the National Society for the Education of the Poor. He aided the revival of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. He gave £1,000 to the establishment of King's College. With a fine presence, great liberality, he was very accessible to others in a lower social position. His wife was a daughter of Thomas Thoroton, of Screveton.

CHARLES MANNERS-SUTTON, (1780-1845), was the eldest son of the Archbishop, and was educated at Eton and Cambridge. He was called to the bar, and practised as a barrister. He became M.P. for Scarborough, and so continued 25 years. He was appointed Judge-Advocate-General, etc., and in 1817 he had the honour of being elected Speaker of the House of Commons, for which position he had thoroughly fitted himself by his studies, his diligence, his knowledge of the usages of the House, and his agreeable manners. He was elected M.P. for the University of Cambridge. The contest for the Speakership in 1835 resulted in his defeat, and he was made Viscount Canterbury, and Baron Bottesford. The Houses of Parliament were destroyed by fire during his Speakership, (1834).


SIR JOHN MARKHAM, (d. 1409), Lord of East Markham, was a King's Serjeant during the reign of Richard II., 1377-99. He drew up the document for deposing that monarch, and was appointed one of the Commissioners to receive the crown which Richard resigned in favour of his cousin Henry. Sir John had already become a judge in Common Pleas, which office he held from A.D. 1396-1408." (Rev. A. B. Briggs).

Was he the judge who refused the demand of the Prince of Wales that his servant, charged with an offence, should be set at liberty, whereupon the Prince smote the judge in the face, and the judge committed the Prince to prison? "Ye king being told of it, thanked God he had so good a judge, and so obedient a sonne to yield to ye law" Some historians give the credit to Judge Gascoigne; a MS in the Markham family says Sir John was the judge. His tomb is in East Markham Church.

SIR JOHN MARKHAM who died 1479, was born at East Markham. He was educated in the practice of the law; was knighted by Edward IV. and made Lord Chief Justice, and by his decisions obtained the reputation of the "upright Judge," for neither Court favour nor private gifts in any way influenced him. At one of his decisions the king was "so vexed that Sir John was outed of his Chief Justiceship, and lived privately the remainder of his life."

The charming church of East Markham was probably rebuilt, or restored, by the Judge, the father, and the chancel rebuilt by the son, the Lord Chief Justice.

"MRS. MARKHAM'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND" is so closely connected with Markham church and parish that a stained glass window in East Markham Church perpetuates the memory of it. (See the notice of Mrs. Penrose, nee Cartwright). (See also "The Markhams of Ollerton," a tale by E. Glaister).

THE MOST REV. WILLIAM MARKHAM, (1719-1807), D.C.L., Archbishop of York, was of the Cotham branch of this ancient Nottinghamshire family, his mother being of the Ollerton branch. He was educated at Westminster School, of which he, in 1753, became Head-Master, and Chaplain to the King. On leaving Westminster he was made Dean of Rochester, and later Dean of Christ Church, Oxford, where he had been a student. In 1771 he became Bishop of Chester, and five years later he was elevated to the Archbishopric of York, which he held for thirty-one years. The biographical notices of this prelate differ very much, both as to his personal amiability and his work as a schoolmaster and afterwards. "He was tell and had a fine presence," and apparently he knew it, for "he held his head very high." There was one respect in which he was very useful to the State; he had six sons and seven daughters, most of whom filled spheres of usefulness in church and state.


RICHARD MELLERS, (d. 1511), Bell-founder.

DAME AGNES MELLERS, (d. 1514), Widow and Vowess.

Richard is supposed to have come from Mellor, near Glossop, the arms of both families being alike. It is probable that in addition to the founding of bells, there would be general foundry work carried on, as metal vessels were commonly used for meals. He appears to have been in a very small way early in life, and became wealthy later. The foundry is supposed to have been where the General Post Office now stands, and where Bellfounders yard was until 1884. He must have cast good bells, judging by the wide area he supplied. He was Sheriff in 1472, Chamberlain 1484, Mayor, 1499 and 1506. He left considerable property to his wife, doubtless with an understanding.

Dame Agnes on her husband's death took a vow not to marry again, and to devote her life to the good of the Church. In 1512-13 she founded and endowed the Free School, "everlastinglye to endure," to teach Grammar. She must have been an able business woman, judging by the fact that she secured as a co-founder so famous a man as Sir Thomas Lovell, and so wisely defined the powers and duties of all concerned in the Foundation Deed. (See Sir T. Lovell).

Among the first guardians or governors of the School appointed by Dame Agnes was the husband of' one of her daughters, and John Smithe, whom she chose as "Scholemaister," kept at his work for twenty years. Many neighbours and friends joined in adding donations to the School. (Quoted from Mr. Corner's 400th Anniversary paper, 1913).

It is very pleasing to see how her children cooperated in the endowment by gifts or otherwise.

REV. RICHARD MELLERS, (the first son, who died in 1524). He went to Oxford, and became a clergyman. He desired to be buried "nye the grave of my fader and moder in St. Mary's Kirk."

ROBERT MELLERS, (d. 1525), succeeded to the business of his father, and lived in Pelham Street. He was Sheriff in 1511 and 1523, Alderman and Mayor in 1521.

THOMAS MELLERS, (d. 1536), was a merchant, and was Common Serjeant in 1485, Chamberlain in 1508, Sheriff 1509, Alderman and Mayor 1514-22-29. He became a wealthy man, and lived on Low Pavement.


Sir Thomas Parkyns

SIR THOMAS PARKYNS, Bart., (1663-1741), Bunny, was an exceedingly eccentric gentleman, but withal had many valuable features in his character. He was an enthusiastic wrestler, believing that the art tended to the development of a sound, robust body, and for this purpose he had annual wrestling matches, with prizes, in his park. He had been educated at Westminster, Cambridge, and studied at Gray's Inn, and wrote a book to promote education. He studied medicine on purpose to help his poorer neighbours. When he came to the estate he rebuilt all the farm houses and buildings. He restored the church chancel, increased the stipend of the Vicar, built the vicarage house, added two bells to the church; built a wall round the park; made plantations, and largely added to the estate. He built the school, with apartments for the master, and rooms for four poor widows.

There is an important item which must be placed to his credit. As Trustee of a charity in the parish he had £10 in hand he did not know what to do with. It would be useless at once to give it away, and it might be "Misaplyed" as he called it. So he put £42 18s. 0d. to it, and went and bought for the charity a small field of about 2½ acres in Nottingham Meadows, "called the great Rye Hills, abutting on the Town Ditch, which divides the Bull piece," then letting at £5 a year, and in the Inclosure Award, under the Act of 1845, land was allotted to the charity between Waterway Street and Kirke White Street, on which sixty houses have been built, on a building lease, with an annual ground rent of £175 12s. 11d., which is properly administered as a charity, and when the lease falls in there will be a large income, which the Charity Commissioners' scheme provides for expanded usefulness.

Sir Thomas must not have all the credit of benevolent effort, for they were a united family, and joined in benevolent works. A monument in the church tells of the mother, LADY ANNE PARKYNS, "She came as a blessing into the family, and God drew out her precious life to ninety-two years." She joined with her son in endowing with gifts and rent charges charities connected with the parishes and churches of Thorpe in the Glebe, and Bradmore, but by a strange fatality the churches in both parishes perished by storms, fire, and decay, and both remain unbuilt.

MISS ANNE PARKYNS, or Lady Anne as she was afterwards called—the baronet's sister—gave £200 for putting poor boys apprentice. She took charge of the administration of Bunny School, and in a deed dated 12th July, 1709, she at great length defined the necessary conditions for securing the goodness of the Teacher, the Scholars, and all parties concerned. He must teach in summer from seven to eleven and from one to five. She was wisely particular as to religious instruction, now not sufficiently valued, and she thoughtfully provided twenty shillings a year to be expended at Midsummer "on a dinner of meat and drink as a lovefeast."

Mansfield Parkyns, see "Travellers."


THE PIERREPONTS, of Holme Pierrepont, were in the time of the Civil War, (1642) a family which may be correctly described as either united or divided. Mrs. Hutchinson, referring to the father, the Earl of Kingston, (1584-1643), very tartly says, "the Earl divided his sons between both parties, and concealed himself till at length his fate drew him to declare himself absolutely on the king's side." He was entrusted by the King with great powers over several counties, but was killed at Gainsborough in a remarkable manner. His forces were overwhelmed in an engagement, and he was taken prisoner, and sent in a boat towards Hull. The Royalist troops, strangely enough, fired on that boat, and the Earl was killed. (1643).

LORD NEWARK, (1606-1680), who became first Marquis of Dorchester, the Earl's eldest son, was Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire, and was a staunch Royalist, "a man of learning and generosity." Mrs. Hutchinson gives an account of his efforts to obtain the Nottingham Town's powder, which were defeated. He raised forces for the King, commanded them, and fought with them. He helped the King with money, and in return was made Marquis of Dorchester and Privy Councillor. After the King's death, being unable to live in the country, he went to live in London, studied Law and Physic, and became a Physician; which showed him to be a fine example of a man adapting himself to circumstances, and living to promote the good of others. He was, in 1647, fined by Parliament for what was called "delinquency," but see later. He was an LL.D. of Oxford, F.R.S., Recorder of Nottingham, etc.

THE HON. WILLIAM PIERREPONT, (1607 (?) -1678), was the second son of the Earl, and may be regarded as the statesman of the family. He became M.P. for Much Wenlock, and was on the side of the Parliament, but was described by Mrs. Hutchinson as "one of the wisest councillors, and excellent speakers in the House." He introduced a bill which provided for triennial parliaments. He was one of the heads of the Independent party, and it is said that Cromwell and he had long consultations. He was appointed on several national committees. He represented Nottinghamshire in Parliament twice, and he died the year before his brother, who was succeeded in the Earldom by William's son.

When the Marquis was fined by the victorious party £7,467 for what they called his "delinquency," a grant was made to William equal to the fine, so it is questionable if any money passed either way.

THE HON. FRANCIS PIERREPONT, (died 1658 -9), was the third son of the Earl. He it was who built the large mansion which in the engraving called "The prospect of Nottingham from the East," stands out so prominently. It stood in Stoney Street, where Messrs. Heymann's warehouse now stands, and its fine gardens are in the picture shown as reaching down Barker Gate. He appears to have been M.P. for Nottingham in 1640. Mrs. Hutchinson settles him as being "coldly on the side of Parliament." His name appears at the head of those persons who invited the Rev. John Whitlock to become Vicar of St. Mary's, in which church, under the Presbyterian form of government, he was a Ruling Elder, and on Mr. Whitlock accepting the invitation, the Marquis gave him the presentation. He was one of the Triers appointed to enquire into the lives and doctrine of the clergy, and when he died his funeral sermon was preached in St. Mary's, and in Holme Pierrepont church, and it was printed under the title of "The Upright Man, and his happy end."

(See Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, p. 298).


SIR GEORGE SAVILE, (1633-1695), first Marquis of Halifax, F.R.S. Rufford, was a great politician. He adapted his sails to the wind, and that not in a bad sense, but because of the changing times when from the Cromwellian army rule, and the licentious gaiety of Charles, and the morose bigotry of James, there followed the abolition of the divine right of kings, and the transfer of authority by the people to William and Mary. He wrote a pamphlet, entitled "The character of a Trimmer," but the authorship was not discovered until after his death. He, in order to serve his country, when passions in politics were wild in the excesses of party zeal, deemed it wisest to keep a well-balanced mind, and so be able to influence others. He was one of three Commissioners appointed by James to treat with William of Orange after he had landed in England, and he afterwards tendered his allegiance to the Prince. He was Lord High Treasurer, Lord Privy Seal, President of the Council of Lords for the safety of London, during the absence of the King, and he, on the nation's behalf was chosen to request the Prince and Princess to accept the Crown.

His second wife was a daughter of the Hon. Wm. Pierrepont.

HENRY SAVILE, (1641-1687), was born at Rufford, brother of Sir George. He travelled much; became M.P. for Newark, and was sent as envoy to France, where he endeavoured to lessen the severity of the King's edict against the Protestants.

WILLIAM SAVILE, (1665-1700), second Marquis of Halifax, was member for Newark six years. He was the author of several pamphlets, and wrote with a well-balanced mind. Lord Macaulay gives a high estimate of his character.

SIR GEORGE SAVILE, (1726-1784), was the son of Sir George, named above. At Cambridge he became M.A. and LL.D., and afterwards M.P. for Yorkshire. He, in the House, made speeches—described as "pious eloquence"—in favour of liberty of thought, and he endeavoured to secure the rights of electors, and the relief of Protestant dissenters, and of Roman Catholics, and the abolition of the press gang, and was in favour of Parliamentary reform. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society, and was presented with the freedom of Nottingham. (D.N.B.).

JOHN, BARON SAVILE, (1818-1896), of Rufford, diplomatist, after service at various capitals became British Minister at Rome. While there he took part in excavations at the temple of Diana, Civita Lavinia. Of the numerous objects of classical antiquities found, part went to the British Museum and other part to form the Savile Gallery in the Nottingham Castle Art Museum. Baron Savile was a P.C., K.C.B., G.C.B., F.S.A., etc. For many years he was a trustee of the British Museum. He was an Alderman of the Nottinghamshire County Council.


Jedediah Strutt

JEDEDIAH STRUTT, (1729-1797), was born at Blackwell, near Tibshelf, and inherited his father's tenacity and firmness. He was employed on the farm, but his thoughts were fixed on mechanical matters, constructing small mills on brooks, improving ploughs, adapting levers and wheels, and at the same time getting to know what he could about literature and science. He was apprenticed to a wheelwright at Findern, five miles from Derby, where he served seven years, lodging at the house of Mr. Wollatt, a small hosiery manufacturer. He then worked seven years at or near Leicester, when his uncle at Blackwell, dying, left Jedediah the farm stock, so he went there to farm. Feeling lonely his thoughts went to Bessy, the daughter of his former host, and Dr. Cox, in his "Memorials of Old Derbyshire," (p. 373), gives a copy of their love letters, which are specimens of good sense and love based on character.

Elizabeth's brother William, was a hosier at Derby, and he requested Jedediah Strutt to study how ribbed hose could be made on the stocking machine. After much labour, time, and expense he succeeded in making an addition to the machine, which in combination would produce the ribbed web of looped fabric. The necessary patents were taken out, and a partnership followed with Mr. Samuel Need, of Nottingham, under the firm of Need, Strutt Woollatt, of Derby and Nottingham; and later this led to the firm of Need, Strutt & Arkwright, and Hockley Mill was built, and cotton manufactured.

"Next to Mr. Lee," Blackner (1816) says, p. 220, "the country owes more to Mr. Strutt, the inventor, than to any other man that ever engaged in the framework knitting, or hosiery business; . . . and the name of Strutt, as patriots, stands second to none in the kingdom."

WILLIAM STRUTT, son of Jedediah, was not a remarkable man, but he was scientific, and was a member of the Royal Society.

EDWARD STRUTT, (1801-1880), son of William, carried on the cotton and hosiery business, and became in succession M.P. for Derby, Arundel, and then Nottingham. He was made Chief Commissioner of Railways, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. He built Kingston Hall, and was made Baron Belper, Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire, LL.D., F.G.S., F.R.S., etc. He was President of University College, London.

LADY BELPER, the daughter of Bishop Otter, was very active socially, visiting at people's houses in Kingston and adjoining villages. The Reading Room was erected to her memory.

HENRY STRUTT, (1840-1914), second Lord Belper, was M.P. for East Derbyshire 1865-74, and for Berwick, 1880, for many years Colonel commanding the South Notts. Yeomanry; A.D.C. to the King, Captain of the Corps of Gentlemen at Arms, Chairman of Quarter Sessions, and 25 years Chairman of the Nottinghamshire County Council, devoting much time to its administration, and to the good government of the County.

THE HON. FREDERICK STRUTT, (1843-1909) brother of Lord Belper, was very active in administration in Derbyshire. His collection of books and prints formed the nucleus of the Belper Library at the Nottingham Shire Hall. He was notable as a naturalist and archaeologist, and in the woods of West Leake is a granite cross to his memory.


CHARLES SUTTON, (d. 1829), lived in Forest House, Nottingham, (where the Children's Hospital now stands) and in Bridlesmith Gate. In 1808 he published the "Nottingham Review" newspaper. In 1816 having inserted a letter addressed to the Editor, which was deemed to reflect on the conduct of the Government, but would be considered perfectly harmless now, he was prosecuted and sentenced to a year's imprisonment in Northampton Jail, during which he continued his paper, heading it thus:—"May 15th, 1816 being the 13th week of his imprisonment." Those were the days when there was no political liberty, repression was the law, and nearly everything from the cradle to the grave was taxed. The stamp duty on each copy of the newspaper was 4d., besides a tax on the advertisements.—(" taxes on knowledge," Milner Gibson called them, and annually opposed them until they were repealed) and so a little weekly paper cost 7d.

Mr. Sutton was a Methodist Sunday School teacher, a class leader and local preacher.

RICHARD SUTTON, (d.1856) son of the above, lived at Radford Grove, which Mr. Elliott in 1790 had made "a delectable paradise," but it became a place of public entertainment, and was called "The Folly," and paradise was lost, and it is now a coal wharf.

Mr. Sutton was in the Town Council, and a member of the Board of Guardians, Superintendent of a Girls' Sunday School, Local Preacher, Secretary of Conference, etc. He left ten sons and daughters.

Henry S. Sutton, see "Poets."


Rev Gilbert Wakefield

REV. GILBERT WAKEFIELD, (1756-1801) was son of the Rev. G. Wakefield, Rector of St. Nicholas', Nottingham. In his early education he became a prodigy, and later was at Cambridge ordained, and obtained a curacy at Stockport, which office he resigned on doctrinal grounds, and became a classical tutor. Resigning several appointments, he devoted himself to literary—chiefly theological—work, but writing a pamphlet in 1798 on the French War, he was prosecuted, and imprisoned for two years in Dorchester gaol, which very seriously affected his health. His services must have been appreciated, for a fund of £5,000 was raised by public subscription, and settled on Trustees. He wrote fifty books and papers. Highly gifted, accomplished, energetic, impulsive, using strong language, he damaged what he advocated.

FRANCIS WAKEFIELD, (d. 1820, aged 61), was the fourth son of the Rev. George Wakefield, and was a hosier and cotton spinner, in partnership with Messrs. J. M. Hancock, his house being the mansion No. 12 Low Pavement. He in an extensive business acquired wealth, which he dispensed with great liberality. He was connected with all the social agencies for the relief of distress, and the diffusion of knowledge. Unassuming and polished, he acquired learning and then imparted it to others. He was a Sunday School Superintendent for many years.

THOMAS WAKEFIELD, Esq., J.P., (d. 1871), was in the 'forties at the head of many social movements. His name appeared in 1844 first in the list of magistrates. His residence was the mansion now No. 12 Low Pavement, and he was described as "Gent." He was Sheriff in 1815 and Mayor in 1835, and again in 1842, he being the first Mayor under the new Municipal Act of 1835, and he declined to receive the then customary allowance of three hundred guineas given to the Mayor to defray the expenses of the office. In 1837 a presentation of £400 of plate was made to him, subscribed to by men of all parties, and as there was no hall or room in the town capable of holding the guests a large tent was erected in Shaw's Lane, (Sherwood Street), for he was active in every department of social work until his reverse came. He was Treasurer of the Mechanics' Institute in 1840 of which he was one of the principal promoters.

There is a pathetic item in the Directory of 1844, where in Smithy Row appears the "Artizans' Library, Thos. Wakefield, Esqre., President," but in 1864 the Library had been removed to Thurland Street, and the entry is, "Wakefield Thomas, Keeper, Exchange Rooms." The meaning of this is that whereas Mr. Wakefield was of an old Nottingham family, (his grandfather being the Rev. Gilbert Wakefield) and without any training for business, but, on the other hand, engrossed in politics, imperial and local, so much so that he was frequently referred to as "King Wakefield," he unwisely became a partner with Thomas North in Coal Mining and Merchanting at Babbington, Cinder Hill, and elsewhere and lost all his money; so from being Mayor he became Mayor's Sergeant, and Keeper of the Exchange and Public Office rooms. He, however, bore up bravely under his trials, and discharged the duties of his humbler sphere with faithfulness, courage and fortitude.


SIR RICHARD WILLOUGHBY, (d. 1363), was Lord of Willoughby, Wollaton and Cossall to which he succeeded in 1324, when he became Knight of the Shire, and for twenty-eight years was one of the Judges. His father evidently did not like the family name of Bugge, and so changed it to the name of the village where he dwelt, and in Willoughby church his tomb may be seen to this day. The old squire was knight of the shire, and his son succeeded to that office. He married Isabell, the daughter of the squire of Cossall, but he would not be merely a landowner, he would be actively useful, and so fitted himself for the office and became a Judge in the Common Pleas, and afterwards Chief Justice of the King's Bench. He had a singular experience in 1331, the year after Queen Isabella was at Nottingham Castle, for the whole district from Grantham to Buxton, including all South Nottinghamshire, was infested with a band of outlaws, who called themselves "Gents' Savages," and terrorized the several counties by committing all kinds of outrages. Among other crimes they captured Sir Richard, the Judge, when on his way to Grantham, and carried him into a wood and kept him until they were paid a ransom of ninety marks, or £60. It proved to be good for the district that a judge was captured, for then strenuous measures were taken to clear it of the felons. His tomb in Willoughby church represents him in the legal costume of the period.

SIR HUGH WILLOUGHBY, (d. 1554), whose portrait hangs in Wollaton Hall, belonged to a noble family and resolved to devote his life to a noble purpose. During the reign of Edward VI. the desire to explore the world was gradually forming in the minds of enterprising men. It burst into a flame a few years afterwards in Elizabeth's days, but was growing earlier, and in 1553 a company having been formed, and ships purchased, they were placed under the command of Sir Hugh, to go on a voyage of discovery to ascertain if there was a North West, or North East, passage to China and India. There were three ships in the company, and they rounded North Cape in Norway, and coming in sight of Nova Zembla they named it Willoughby Land, but in a great storm the ships parted company, and could not find each other again. Sir Hugh in the "Bona Esperanza" of 120 tons, carrying thirty-five persons, with a smaller vessel, tossed about until they reached Russian Lapland, where they determined to pass the winter, but not having fuel to keep them warm, nor the necessary suitable food, Sir Hugh and his company all perished; their bodies, still in the ships, were discovered later in the year by Russian fishermen. Sir Hugh had kept a journal, and had made his will, and was found seated in his chair. The two ships were brought back in 1556, but off Scotland both of them perished with their crews.

These brave men who in that age went forth and last, or risked, their lives and their all, built up for us a knowledge of geography, climate, navigation, essential food, fuel, and other laws of nature, and through their penalties we are enriched.

Francis Willoughby,

See "Naturalists."

The Morley Family, The Wilson Family,

See "Manufacturers."

The Smith Family, The Wright Family,

See "Bankers."