John, the fifth Lord Clinton, in 1433-5 was in the warlike expedition made into France, and five years afterwards, on the Duke of York being appointed Regent, Clinton and many other noblemen sailed with him into Normandy, but while still engaged in the same wars he had the misfortune to be taken prisoner, and at the expiration of six years only regained his liberty on payment of a ransom of six thousand marks,

After his return to England in 1449-50 he granted and confirmed to his kinsman, Sir James Fiennes,1 who had previously had summons to Parliament by the title of Lord Saye and Sele, he being descended from Joan, third sister and co­heir of William Lord Saye, and to his heirs and assigns the name and title of Lord Saye (which, by reason of the descent of Clinton from Idonea, the eldest sister, he believed to be his by right), also the arms, which, being attached to that name, he had by hereditary right or otherwise.

In 1459, on ceasing to support the cause of Henry VI., his lands were seized, and he was attainted in the Parliament then held at Coventry. But on the accession of the house of York he was restored to his former position. Clinton soon afterwards, along with the Earl of Kent, Lord Fauconbridge, and Sir John Howard, was appointed for the safe keeping of the seas; and landing in Brittany with ten thousand men they won the town of Conquet and the Isle of Rhee. In the third year of Edward IV. he attended the King into the north, when siege was laid to the castles of Bamburgh, Dunstanburgh, and Alnwick, then held by the Lancastrian party. He died September 24, 1464, leaving John, his only son and heir, by Elizabeth, his wife, daughter of Richard Fiennes, Lord Dacre, of Hurst Monceaux, in Sussex.

John, the sixth Earl Clinton, married Anne, daughter of Sir Humphrey Stafford, and died on February 29, 1488, leaving John, his son and heir.

In 1498-9 the seventh Lord Clinton accompanied Sir Edward Poynings, with 1,500 archers, to the assistance of Margaret, Duchess of Savoy, against the Duke of Gueldres. Again, in 1514 he, with divers other men of distinction and four hundred men-at-arms, went over to Calais for the better defence of the garrison. On the occasion of the marriage of the Lady Mary (sister of the King) with Louis the Twelfth of France, the Dauphin having proclaimed jousts at Paris, Clinton accompanied the Duke of Suffolk there, they being all clad in green coats and hoods, in order that they might not be known. He died on June 4, 1515, leaving Thomas, his son, by Elizabeth, his wife, daughter of Sir John Morgan, of Tredegar.

Thomas, the eighth Lord Clinton, succeeded to his father when twenty-four years of age, and died two years afterwards of a malignant disease called the sweating sickness, which killed in a few hours many knights and gentlemen of the King's court. His death took place on August 7, 1517; he left an only son, Edward, by Mary, his wife, daughter of Sir Edward Poynings, K.G.

Edward, the ninth Lord Clinton and first Earl of Lincoln, was born in 1512. He is said by Collins, the historian, to have been one of the most eminent men of the time in which he lived. His father dying in his infancy, Clinton was, according to the custom of the age, in ward to the King. Educated at the Court, his youth was passed in those magni­ficent and romantic amusements which distinguished the commencement of Henry's reign.2 In 1532, when in his twentieth year, he waited on the King at the memorable interview with Francis the First, which took place at Sanding-field, when, after mutual compliments, King Henry, going to Boulogne, was royally entertained with his whole train for four days; and in return the French King with his Court accompanied Henry to Calais, where they were treated with sumptuous hospitality. In Hall's Chronicle a curious account is given of the whole proceedings.

The young Duke of Richmond, although only thirteen years of age—the young Marcellus, as he is named by Froude —was among the followers of the English King. His mother was the wife of Lord Clinton, a fact which doubtless had considerable influence on Clinton's prosperous career.3

Lord Clinton was specially summoned to the Parliament held at Westminster in 1539, and present on May 23rd at the passing of the Act for the dissolution of the monasteries; whereof Sir Henry Spelman observes the misfortunes that Froude says that if this boy had lived he would have been named to follow Edward VI. in the succession, and would have been King of England, but he passed away in the flower of his loveliness ; one more evidence of the blight which rested on the stem of the Tudors.

In 1527, before the commencement of the disturbance on the divorce, Henry endeavoured to negotiate a marriage for him with a princess of the Imperial blood; and in the first overture gave an intimation, which could not be mistaken, of the intention, if possible, to place him in the line of succession.

The Duke was brought up along with the Earl of Surrey, who has left a beautiful account of their boyhood at Windsor—their tournaments, their hunts, their young loves, and passionate friendships. Richmond married Surrey's sister, and died in the following year. Surrey, on revisiting Windsor, recalls his image among the scenes which they had enjoyed together:—

.   .   .   "Windsor, where I in lust and joy, With a
King's son my childish years did pass, In greater
feast than Priam's sons of Troy.

Oh, place of bliss, renewer of my woes, Give me
account, where is thy noble fere, Whom in thy
walls thou didst each night enclose, To other lief
but unto me most dear?"

Froude's History of England, vol. i. (note).

At the execution of Anne Boleyn, on the scaffold, by the King's desire, were present Cromwell, the Lord Chancellor, the Duke of Suffolk, and, lastly, the Duke of Richmond, who might now, when both his sisters were illegitimatised, be considered the heir presumptive to the throne.

The Duke of Richmond died July 22, 1536.

happened to the King, and most of the peers, are a consequence of this Act; but Lord Clinton only recites his being made Earl of Lincoln, and the issue from him to Theophilus, his great-grandson, then living, without any disaster having befallen them. In this year he was also appointed one of the deputation to receive Anne of Cleves on her way to her marriage with the King.

In the 32nd Henry VIII. a grand tournament having been proclaimed in France, Flanders, Scotland, and Spain, for all comers, to be holden at Westminster on May 1st, the Lord Clinton was one of the challengers, who, very richly apparelled, appeared on that occasion, which continued five days, the King, Queen, and their whole Court being present.

In 1544 Clinton joined the expedition sent to take vengeance on the Scots; the English, under the Earl of Hertford, being conveyed by the Lord High Admiral. The army landed near Leith on the 4th of May, the van being led by the Lord Admiral and Lord Clinton, and after encountering a body of the enemy entered Leith. Next day, on the army marching towards Edinburgh, the townsmen wished to make terms of surrender. The Earl of Hertford informed the Scots that he was sent there to take vengeance on them for their detestable conduct in not fulfilling the agreement they had entered into to send their Queen to marry Prince Edward, and that unless the Scots would submit to his pleasure, they would be put to the sword, and the city burnt to the ground. On the Scots answering it were better to stand on their defence4 than to accept these terms, the Earl of Hertford gave orders for the immediate assault of the town, which was performed with signal courage; and on entering the Cannongate put all those who made opposition to death, and afterwards set fire to the city, which continued to burn for three days. The Earl of Hertford conferred the honour of knighthood on Lord Clinton, whom he placed first upon the list of valiant men.

After this signal service the Lord Admiral, with Lord Clinton and the fleet, scoured the coast of Scotland. Meanwhile the King in person was laying siege to Boulogne; and there Lord Clinton and the fleet sailed to his Majesty's assistance, landing nine hundred men to assist in the capture of the town. This, however, was not effected, for though the assault was courageously given, it was as manfully repelled, and the assailants for the time retired, with some loss on both sides. On Boulogne being taken soon afterwards, Lord Clinton was appointed governor.

At the funeral of Henry the Eighth his lordship was one of the twelve principal peers who were appointed chief mourners. On the accession of Edward the Sixth, the Lord Protector and Council, knowing well Lord Clinton's ability in naval warfare, gave him the appointment of Admiral of the fleet then being dispatched to inflict further punishment on the Scots for refusing to comply with the treaty for the marriage of Mary their Queen with King Edward, so finally agreed upon that the contracts were sealed and sworn.

The Lord Clinton rode with his fleet of fifty men-of-war and twelve galleys in Edinburgh Frith, and by his assistance materially helped in obtaining the memorable victory at Mussel borough on the l0th of September, 1547. The two armies were divided by the river Eske, to which the Scots lay nearest, and on the English raising their camp with the intention of taking possession of another site called "Under Eske," which was thought more to their advantage, the Scots, noticing their action, and imagining they were retreating towards their shipping, in the sure hope of victory forsook their hill, and marched into the plain towards the English army, when the great shot from the English vessels commanded by Lord Clinton so furiously scoured among them that many of the Scots were literally torn to pieces, fourteen hundred being killed and fifteen hundred taken prisoners.

On Lord Clinton's return from this expedition he was liberally rewarded for his services by grants of landed estates: the manor of Braunceston, in the county of Lincoln, part of the possessions of John, Lord Hussey, who was executed for taking part in the northern insurrection; the manor of Folkingham, lately owned by the Duke of Norfolk, who was attainted of treason; the manor of Clifford, in Herefordshire, lately owned by Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March. For these last-named services Clinton was received by the Council, and thanked, while afterwards he was conducted by the whole Council into the presence of the King, who publicly acknowledged the nation's indebtedness to him. On the same occasion King Edward appointed him Lord High Admiral and a member of the Privy Council. On Henry the Second, the French King, being made a knight of the Garter, Clinton had the honour to be installed on the same occasion, his plate of installation yet remaining in the Chapel at Windsor Castle.

Intelligence reaching England in the fifth year of King Edward's reign that the Marshal of France was on his way to the English Court to present to the King the order of St. Michael, and conveying propositions for a marriage between the King and the Lady Elizabeth, elder daughter of the French monarch, Lord Clinton received the Monarch at Gravesend, and conducted him to the presence of the King at Richmond.

On the birth of a third son to the King of France, and King Edward's acceptance of the office of godfather to the infant, for its fulfilment in November, 1551, the Lord High Admiral was dispatched as the King's proxy. Along with Sir William Pickering, the English Ambassador in Paris, he was also empowered to ascertain particulars respecting the French proposition relating to the marriage of King Edward and the Trench King's daughter. Lord Clinton carried with him two flagons of gold, with chains of the same, weighing 165 ounces, for presentation to Catherine de Medicis of France. On his return from the French Court he received orders to repair to the Castle of Guisnes, there to inspect and report on the needful alterations required for its security.

On the 3Oth of the following December he delivered to the King and Council the ratifications of the marriage between his Majesty, King Edward, and the Lady Elizabeth of France, under the great seal.

In 1554, Clinton assisted the Duke of Norfolk in the suppression of the rebellion of Sir Thomas Wyatt, and by this action growing into favour with Queen Mary, she desired his lordship to keep himself in readiness to repair to her on the arrival of Philip, Prince of Spain, and on Monday, July 23rd, when the Prince set out from Winchester to join the Queen, he was attended by Lord Clinton and many of the nobility.

Queen Elizabeth, on her succession to the throne, appointed Clinton one of her Privy Council. He was also continued in the office of Lord High Admiral. In the eleventh year of her reign, Clinton was one of the lords appointed to examine the charges brought against the Queen of Scots by the Earl of Murray. For these and other services, on May 4, 1572, he was created Earl of Lincoln.5

The Earl was seldom allowed to remain long inactive: he was one of those peers appointed on the trial of Thomas, Duke of Norfolk. The next year he is met with in France, accompanied by Lord Dacre of the South and a great train of other noblemen, on his way to the Court of Charles IX. to receive a ratification of the treaty of Blois. He was also employed in that tedious and abortive treaty of marriage between Queen Elizabeth and the Duke of Anjou.6

He died January 16, 1584-5, aged 72, and was buried in St. George's Chapel, Windsor, where a sumptuous monument was erected to his memory.

The Earl's first wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Blount, and widow of Gilbert, Lord Talboys, by whom he had three daughters.

His second wife was Ursula, daughter of William, Lord Stourton, by whom he had issue, three sons, and two daughters—Henry, his successor; Edward, who died unmarried ; and Thomas, who married Mary, daughter of John Tirrel of Warley; Anne, the wife of William Ascough, son and heir of Sir Francis Ascough, of Kelsey, in Lincolnshire ; and Frances, married to Gyles Bruges, third Lord Chandos. By his third wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Gerald Fitzgerald, ninth Earl of Kildare, he had no children. She was the "fair Geraldine" of Henry, Earl of Surrey.

Henry,  second  Earl of Lincoln, was one of the fifteen.

1 This is the Lord Saye who was so cruelly put to death by Jack Cade, and who figures in Shakespeare's Henry VI., Part 2. He is represented by Cade as a learned man, who says to him :—
Thou say, thou serge, nay thou buckram lord. . . . What canst thou answer to my majesty for giving up Normandy unto Monsieur Bosmacu, the dauphin of France? Be it known unto thee . . . that I am the besom that must sweep the court clean of such filth as thou art. Thou hast most traitorously corrupted the youth of the realm, in erecting a grammar school: and whereas before, our forefathers had no other books but the score and the tally, thou hast caused printing to be used, and contrary to the king, his crown, and dignity, thou hast built a paper mill. . . . Thou hast appointed justices of peace, to call poor men before them about matters they were not able to answer. Moreover, thou hast put them in prison, and because they could not read, thou hast hanged them. ... I feel remorse in myself with his words, but I'll bridle it: he shall die an it be but for pleading so well for his life. Away with him."
Gibbon, the historian, claims Lord Saye as one of his ancestors.
2 Lodge's Illustrious Personages of Great Britain.
3 The Duke of Richmond was the child of the only intrigue of Henry VIII. of which any credible evidence exists, whose beauty and noble promise were at once the father's misery and pride; giving point to his bitterness at the loss of his sons by Catherine, quickening his hopes of what might be, and deepening his discontent of that which was. Henry Fitz-Roy, as he was called, was born in 1519, and when six years old was created Earl of Nottingham and Duke of Richmond and Somerset. His mother was Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Blount, an accomplished and most interesting woman, whom Edward, Lord Clinton, married as his first wife.
4 Collins' Peerage.
5 Collins' Peerage of England.
6 Lodge, in his Memoirs of Illustrious Personages of Great Britain, says of this Earl's embassy: "Some letters Lincoln wrote while at the French Court, on the subject of this marriage, are well worth perusal: particularly the   second, which was written even 'while the detestable prince,' of whose oath of perpetual amity with Elizabeth it chiefly treats, was secretly planning the horrors of the massacre of St Bartholomew, which was perpetrated within a very few weeks after the date of his solemn perjury."