Territorials. The Territorial Force is not well represented in Bulwell, so far as numbers are concerned. This is a pity, for as a nation we require the voluntary service of the young men available. Every man ought to bear his fair share of the good government and defence of his country. Any one who has travelled on the continent, especially in France, will have seen the sad workings of compulsory military service for three years in barracks, taking the men from their homes and occupations, often into evil company, in associated sleeping rooms. We do not want that, but its alternative must not be indifference, neglect, unpreparedness, for all men do not love peace, and the mere prospect of war on the sea would endanger the export of our coal and manufactures, and our trade, once lost, might be lost for ever, while the cost of our bread would be doubled. We are the freest, and best governed nation on God's earth. The liberties won by the blood of our forefathers must not be lost. We have everything to lose, and nothing to gain by neglect, or upsetting, or violent change, for trade is a sensitive plant, which readily shrinks if meddled with, and it is as true with nations, as with children, the strongest makes himself respected. A fortnight under canvass, and a certain number of drills in a year, would be good for the chests, muscles and general health of our young men.

Thrift. The efforts made by many persons of the artizan class are worthy of all praise. The old sick clubs are evidence of this. There were, before 1888, a number of small sick clubs, and then the Manchester Unity established a branch, and the present Apollo Temple Lodge was an offspring of that old lodge, commencing 1840. The late Henry Glover was one of the first members, and was secretary for over fifty years. It is of course impossible to say to what extent there are depositors from Bulwell in the Nottingham Savings Bank, or in the Bulwell Post Office Savings Bank; but the Bulwell Industrial Provident Society has a membership of nearly 2,000, who have £26,000 invested in it, and connected with it is a children's bank, which has £830 in it. There are several other forms of thrift at work in the parish, such as each school having a penny bank.

Public Houses. There were in 1832 fourteen Public Houses, the population being 2611. In 1844 there were nine Inns and Taverns, and eight Beerhouses, two Maltsters, and Perry's Brewery, the population being 3157. There are now twenty-two tied public houses, and twenty-two beer-offs. The present public houses are generally much larger than the older ones, and do much more business. There are six pawnbrokers. The police consist of an inspector and nine constables. No new license has been granted during the past seven years; three licenses were granted previously, for the newly populated districts. No public house has been closed for redundancy, with compensation. There are a number of licenses to premises within a short distance of each other.

The Constitutional Club, and Liberal Club, sell drink to their members, and there is another club. In clubs there is no police inspection, and no compulsory hours of closing, so that drinkers, when compelled to leave the public house, may, if members, go to a club, and continue drinking, without police interference. There is fortunately little crime, for the people generally speaking, are law-abiding, and there is not so much drunkenness as there used to be, but there is a sad amount of drinking on pay nights and Saturday nights, and it is not sufficient that there is less drunkenness, there ought to be none, for a drunken man is a nuisance, and a danger to society, and a drunken woman is worse The remedies are the power of the gospel, medicine, abstinence, self-restraint, education, personal and combined influence, the will of the people, counter attractions, and the power of law. The application of any, or all of these remedies, throws a strong responsibility upon all persons who can say "Write me as a lover of my fellow men." There is, at the time of writing this paper, an unfortunate industrial dispute, occasioning the use of a larger number of police, but it is to the credit of Bulwell that, ordinarily, only half the number per 1,000 of the population required in some other parts of the city, are necessary here.

There is a Public Hall, and a Picture Palace, with another in course of erection. Possibly this will lessen the amount spent at public houses, and also the amount deposited in the savings banks, and further the attendance at evening classes. We will hope that the picture palace proprietors will avoid, as much as possible, the sensational, and develop the taste for the educational, and a love of nature.

Easter Vestry. The Easter Vestry used to be much more important as a parish meeting than it now is, for the Overseers of the Poor, and of Highways, were then elected for the year: Church rates were then made for Church expenses, as an  offertory or collection at the Sunday Services was seldom made. The Church rate in 1833. for instance, was 5d. in the £.

Old Houses. The oldest house appears to be the old Free School, 1667. In the following century may be classed Hoe-Wood, or Hall Wood House, where old clerk Wilkinson used to live, up the Quarry Road. The ''Horse and Jockey" Inn is another old house, as was Mr. Faulconbridge's house, facing the bridge, and which has just now been pulled down for a site for a picture palace. The house of Mrs. Shaw, 71, Main Street, has one of the old beams above, and in front of the fire place, shewing how there used to be an open chimney. Several houses in the locality look old. Beech house is a good specimen of the Georgian period.

Old Names. A few of the former names of places, now changed, were not very flattering—as Cabbage Alley, Monkey  Row, Water-Porridge Lane, Scrap Row. Even after 1870, when there were developments in buildings by reason of mining and railways, there came Monkey Park, Hell Row, Cracker Park, etc.

Bulwellisms. A number of words are in common use which are obsolete, or colloquial, or "real natives," as surree for sirrah; bargast, a contemptible boy; by leddy, by my lady; by giney, (hard g) and my hiny, for emphasis; snied out, infested; addling, earning; jos-hawk, silly; sally-fardling, dawdling; trapesing, walking aimlessly; titivating, smartening up; nesh, sensitive; galivanting, walking affectedly; nattering, peevish; happing, wrapping; pottering, poking. Have yer made (locked) the door? These, and many others, have been collected by Mr. F. J. Wilkinson.

Workhouse. The Hospital, which is a part of the Basford Union Workhouse, is in Bulwell parish, being built in a field that belonged to the poor of Ruddington, and which was bought by the Board of Guardians, who however have nothing to do with the poor of Bulwell. From 26th March, 1899, Bulwell became part of the Parish of Nottingham for Poor Law purposes, with a reduction of one-third of the poor rates for five years. There are still three men and one woman in the old workhouse not transferred, for whom 5/10 per week each is paid.

Industries. It isdifficult to realize Bulwell as an agricultural village, yet such it was for possibly eight hundred years, and it was very favourable for the purpose, having several varieties of soils, with the Leen, springs, brooks and meadows, and pasturing,—the woods of old for swine, and nearness to a market town. Gradually market-gardening was introduced, the growth of corn lessened, and milking increased. In the early times nearly every man cultivated some land, and later, part of the day was occupied on the land, and part in a handicraft trade. In Norman times the lord of the manor had a flour-mill at which all the tenants must have their corn ground. The Leen was very favourable for the purpose, and probably the lord's mill would be near the Church, and the ford Mr. Widdowson's old mill, now used for grinding chemical materials, looks to be the most probable site. As the Leen supplied water power for grinding, the Forge Mill, Springfield (Allcock's), and one below the bridge, were added.

There being in Bulwell plenty of timber growing, men made necessary agricultural articles and sold them in Nottingham market place, which was then unpaved. John Butler, of Bulwell, and his fellows, were, in 1467-8, fined 8d. for the occupation of the common soil on Tymber Hill (South Parade) with fleaks.

Boulder stones, if they did not grow in Bulwell, as used to be thought, were certainly plentiful, and in 1486 the price of them delivered to the Chamberlain of Nottingham was 6d. a load. Nottingham Market Place, the streets and causeways, until say 100 years ago, were largely paved with boulders, called "kidneys." Richard Bocher, of Bulwell, was paid twopence a load for carrying away sand from Fletcher Gate when it was being paved, but for bringing seventeen loads of sand to "Seint Mary Kyrkyerd," he was paid 2s 10d.

Stone. It is thought that the Town Wall of Nottingham, built about 1267, was of Mapperley stone (see Mapperley, p. 146). In 1458 Basford stone was used for the repair of Trent Bridge (see Basford, p. 105), but Bulwell stone was doubtless found to be better, and has ever since held its own. In the "Borough Records," 1530, there is an item "Payd to Wyllson of Bollwelle for ij (2) lodes lym lijs iiij " (3s. 4d.). equal to about 33s. 4d. now, but was "a lode" then, with bad roads, the same as a load now? Lime burning has. for centuries, been largely an occupation. Let any one go up the "Quarries," and estimate how much stone has gone from there.

Pottery. The deposit of clay over the stone has been, and is, of a valuable character. A pottery was established in 1855, by Mr. R. Sankey. From Bulwell garden rlower pots are sent far and wide, and bricks have been extensively made, but building houses is now largely a suspended trade.

There is adjoining the Bulwell and Bennerley Railway, a fine bed of moulding sand, which is being used by the Stanton Iron Company for foundry purposes. A paper mill at Bulwell is mentioned by Barnaby Wartnaby in 1672.

Forge Mill. The Forge Mill is really in the parish of Papplewick, there being a narrow strip of land running for more than a mile, between Hucknall and Bestwood parishes, and retained apparently for the benefit of the Leen stream. This is probably "the Meadow of Beskwood" which had, in 1170, been given by King Henry II. to God, and St. Mary, for the founding of Newstead Priory. In Bulwell Churchyard there is a gravestone recording the death of Ealph Smith, of Bulwell Forge, gent., 1669, and of Thomas his son, in 1659. In the "History of Hucknall." Mr. Beardsmore gives a quotation from Thomas Baskerville, in 1685, whereby it appears the forge was "driven by water, where with weighty hammers bigger than men can handle, they knock or beat out long bars of iron when they are made red hot in that great forge or fire blown up by those mighty bellows." Deering (1751) says, "There is a great quantity of Ironstone in this (Nottm.) neighbourhood, but as the Iron manufacture is shifted from hence very little ore is now got to what there was a century or two ago, however there is still one forge agoin at Bulwill."

Cotton Mills. Mr. Robert Lowe, in 1798, mentions six Cotton Mills in Linby and Papplewick—the Upper, Old, New, Middle, Forge, and Nither Mills—all engaged in preparing cotton for thread for the making of stockings, and for the Manchester trade. (See "In and About Notts., p. 325 and 383). Doubtless may Bulwell people worked at these mills. The Nether mill would be the Forest mill, now worked by the Bulwell Finishing Company. They were all worked by Mr. Robinson, who provided the women workers with a distinctive and pretty dress. It was a poor trade, for the hours were long, ruinous for the health of children, and the wages were very small, as were also the profits, for the Lancashire competition was keen, and the cost of carrying the cotton from Liverpool, before there were proper roads, or railways was heavy. Many of the manufacturers were ruined. The stoppage of the mills, and the pulling down of the cottages at Papplewick and Linby, probably greatly increased the pauperism at Hucknall and Bulwell, and those were the days when the law of settlement was cruelly enforced. For some years the old mill was worked by Messrs. Cartledge as a thread mill.

Hosiery. The manufacture of Hosiery, particularly of gloves, became a settled industry in Bulwell in the 18th century, and early in the 19th century it had become the staple industry. In 1811 there was great distress among the framework knitters, for owing to the French war trade was bad, bread was two or three times its present price, the people were starving, improved machinery was being introduced, the standing charges were unbearable; it seemed as if the only practical remedy was to smash the machinery, and so lessen the output The remedy however proved worse than the disease. Mr. Hollingworth, of Bulwell, in order to protect his frames one Sunday night, had seven or eight men in his house, armed with muskets. The house was attacked by the frame breakers, and one of them, Westley, of Arnold, was shot. All the frames and the furniture in the house were destroyed. At Westley's funeral, at Arnold, there was a great demonstration, and in the presence of the High Sheriff, dragoons, infantry and constables, the funeral service, and the Riot Act, were read simultaneously. The story is too long to be given here, but in four years 624 frames had been destroyed, farm houses were plundered, and there were other outrages. Men were hanged, or transported for fourteen years. One shilling per dozen increase was paid to the workmen of the principal firm, owning 3000 frames, but otherwise little help came for many years, and the pitiable condition of the workpeople continued.

In 1844 there were in the parish 606 small frames, usually called stocking frames, worked partly in workshops, but chiefly in the dwelling-houses, and some of the wide top windows of houses built a hundred years ago, and used for giving light to the frame-worker, may be seen to-day. The sound, difficult to render, but something like "shee-shee— chockerty-chock," was familiar in every part of Bulwell, but the distress was so great that in 1845 a Commissioner was appointed to enquire into the condition of framework-knitters, a report of which was presented to Parliament William Deverill, John Alvey, John Pinkett, George Chandler, and Francis Syson, of Bulwell, gave evidence to the following effect:—There were 581 frames in Bulwell; they complained not only of low wages, but high standing-charges, in cases amounting to 3s. per week. The wages were often not paid till from 9 to 12 o'clock on Saturday nights. They worked long but irregular hours, sometimes fourteen hours a day, and other days not at all. Their net earnings, they said, were at many times not more than 6s. 6d. per week. Gardens were few, and were rented at the rate of £10 per acre, etc. It is evident the industry was a decaying one. Small narrow frames worked by hand were beginning to be superseded. There were far too many frames, and workers, engaged in the trade, for the demand was then very limited. Frame rents— abolished in 1872—were a great evil, and so was "truck " or the payment of wages in kind. A great strike occurred in 1850-1, but when it was over the trade was gone. Gloves were made from other materials, and elsewhere; great suffering ensued. The factory system however brought help, and there is still some hosiery made in Bulwell under greatly improved conditions.

The Bleaching of hosiery goods has long been established by the families of Allcock, Charles, Pearson, Woodward, now Murray & Co., and others, for the springs of water flowing from the Bunter Sandstone, over the bed of clay, are numerous, and well suited to the trade. Dyeing has been added to bleaching, and the dressing and finishing of lace goods now finds employment for 500 to 600 persons.

Coal. Coal was not available as fuel for many centuries after Bulwell became a village. The people must go to the woods for fallen trees, and sticks, and as the woods wasted by the cutting down of trees, and not planting others, the people must have suffered acutely in the old-fashioned winter for fuel for warmth and cooking. For several hundred years surface coal has been obtained in Wollaton, Bilborough, Kimberley, etc., and Throsby tells us in 1795 that at Bilborough "There are considerable coal works; coals are got here a hundred yards deep." The top coal anciently used was of a poor quality, very smoky and offensive to the smell. The development of coal in the Bulwell district was largely due to the energy and enterprize of Mr. Thomas North, who obtained leases of 9,000 to 10,000 acres of coal in Bulwell, Basford, Nuthall, Strelley, etc., and sank several pits, the collieries being connected, firstly with the canal system, and afterwards with the railways. In 1842 Cinder Hill Colliery was established, which in 1844 employed 200 people. Babbington, Newcastle. Turkey Hill (Strelley) etc., followed; a partnership was formed of Messrs. North, Wakefield & Morley, Coal Merchants. The operations were vast, too large for the capital, and the return from Mr. Wakefield's considerable fortune, which he had inherited, was lost, and he, the most popular man in Nottingham, and twice its Mayor, became mayor's sergeant, and caretaker of the Exchange rooms, and ultimately Mr. North found himself in the hands of his creditors. It was about 1872 that Mr. Charles Seely, Junior (now Sir Charles Seely. Bart.) appeared on the scene, when trade was bad, and the demand small, and Top Hard selling at 7/0 per ton, Smitham at 6d. With character, competency and capital, and improved trade, the development began, and has gone on ever since.

In 1861 the Hucknall Collieries commenced sinking, and this had its effect on Bulwell men.

The sinking of the Bestwood pit (1872-75), and afterwards the formation of its Iron Smelting Works, had a very material bearing in Bulwell, because of the large number of men employed there, but residing in Bulwell, and now it has come to pass that Bulwell men go daily to work at the pits at Broxtowe, Watnall, Gedling, and Newstead, and probably the families of two-thirds of the inhabitants of Bulwell are more or less interested in the mining industry.

There was an attempt to settle the industry of matchmaking in Bulwell, and a small factory was, in 1863, built off Main Street, by H. Smith & Co., but it was not a success, and now is a part of the works of Messrs. Bromley & Co. There are now Soap Works, Basket and Wicker Works, Bone, Glue and Manure Works, and adjoining Bulwell Forest Great Northern Station, Railway Wagon Works.