The next enlargement was the addition of a clerestory to the nave. This appears to have involved the demolition of the Transitional arcade on the south side, and its consequent replacement with pointed arches, carried on octagonal piers, having carved capitals—hence the contrast between the two arcades.

The north arcade also seems to have caused some uneasiness in the minds of the builders, but it was happily saved from destruction by the judicious employment of heavy rectangular buttresses to counteract the thrust of the arches against the western rubble wall.

Clifton church — West end.

When the clerestory was completed, the western gable was carried up to correspond with it and finished with a new gable coping crowned at the apex with a fine cross which carries a crucifix—perhaps the only original one1 remaining in situ in the county.

This portion of the work is carried out in coal-measures sandstone, in a late phase of the "Decorated" style of architecture, and corresponds with the work of reconstruction which was going on at the neighbouring village of Barton-in-Fabis at the close of the 14th century, and early in the 15th century. The clerestory contains three square-headed windows on either side, each of two lights, with tracery similar to the lights in the steeple at Barton-in-Fabis; whereby we get a clue for the identification of the builders.

Another half-century of devotion went by, and then the fabric was again enlarged. A license to found a chantry was granted October 24th, 1476. Two years later Sir Robert the founder died, but this did not interrupt the building operations which had already been commenced.

In the reign of Edward IV. the chantry was confirmed and further enlarged when it became a "College" consisting of "a Warden and two Chaplains in the chapel of Holy Trinity, within the Parish Church of St. Mary." The founder, Sir Robert Clifton, who died April 9th, 1478, and whose body is buried in the north transept, is commemorated by a fine brass whereon his gift is recorded, and Sir Gervase, his son, who died May 12th, 1491, has a similar memorial containing the record that he "completed and firmly established the College."

The north transept was re-built in coal-measures sandstone as the chapel of the Holy Trinity to contain the accessories of the college. Two piscinas and an almerie remain to indicate the positions of the altars. In addition to the brassesl of the founders, this chapel contains a very fine collection of memorials in alabaster and brass with heraldic achievements of the Cliftons, extending from the reign of Richard II., until well on in the 17th century, for the transept continued to serve as the family mausoleum until 1632, when a great "vault" was built on the south side of the chancel by the Sir Gervase Clifton, grandson of Sir Gervase the Gentle, who became heir to the estates when only one year old, and who distinguished himself by marrying seven wives, five of whom are buried in the vault at Clifton; the seventh, who survived him, but died later in the same year (1666), was buried like the third wife in the church of St. Giles, London.

Sketch made May 1918 when the ivy had been stripped from the walls.

Several tombs which formerly stood in the chancel have been removed to the north transept. The old chancel was pulled down and entirely rebuilt on a larger scale. Projecting corbels, and a blocked up doorway on the north wall indicate the position of a demolished sacristy. All this late work was executed in stone from the Castle Donington quarries, in the prevailing "Perpendicular" style of architecture, and it would appear to have been carried out under the supervision of the rector, Rev. Robert Yole, who was instituted in the same year that Sir Robert the founder died (1478). Anyway he caused his name to be cut on the roof timbers, together with the date "1503"— presumably the date when this portion of the work was brought to completion, and it is said that a carved head above the chancel arch was intended to portray his features. The face of one of his predecessors in the rectory, Bishop Grene, will be found twice repeated on the earlier work, first on the stop to the hood-moulding of the entrance door and again on the stop to the hood-moulding of the light in the northern face of the lower stage of the tower. Bishop Grene was "Bishop of the Isles" (Sodor and Man) 1449-1454, previous to his institution to the Rectory of Clifton in 1462.

It is noticeable that there is no entrance to the church on the south side. This unusual arrangement is due no doubt, to the situation of the hall, adjoining the west end of the church, and also to the fact that the only line of approach from the village is from the north east.

A sacristy was built on the western side of the south transept, wherein the valuables pertaining to the college might be kept in safety. Its purpose is manifest by the fact that it has no architectural pretensions; the three single light windows in the south front are quite plain and guarded with heavy iron bars. On the western jamb of one of these windows the radial lines of a scratch sundial are plainly to be seen, and there is a smaller dial on the jamb of one the aisle windows.

This sacristy is now used as the clergy vestry, while the south transept serves as the choir vestry.

The original low central tower has been raised by instalments until it is now a most imposing feature. It was raised by one stage probably soon after the clerestory was completed, for it is carried out in coal measures sandstone, and as already mentioned it carries the lineaments of Bishop Grene. It is quite clear from the straight joints, the lines of the water tabling of the roof and other indications, that this stage of the tower had been added before the transepts and the chancel were re-built. I think the upper and crowning stage of the tower was added as the last work of all, during the reign of Edward IV., when the chantry had been enlarged to the status of a college.

The huge gargoyles at the four corners of the tower3 are fine examples; indeed all the gargoyles of this period are worthy of notice. In addition to the oft repeated white lion of the Cliftons on the west side of the north transept there is a spotted panther—a badge of the Lancastrian Kings—and near it was a whale, an almost forgotten emblem of the Resurrection of our Lord, which found but little favour with mediaeval builders.

Although the tower now rises to a considerable height its summit is still below the level of the high ground immediately to the south, so that pedestrians crossing the hill by the bridle road which leads to Barton look down upon it and fancy that it leans considerably out of upright; but this is an optical illusion and easily to be explained.

(1) One at Woodborough. on the chancel gable has been restored. A fragment is preserved in Gedling Church and a similar fragment in the Art Museum at Nottingham.
(2)  See Vol. XVII (1913) Thoroton Transactions for illustration of Brasses. Sir  Robert Clifton,   1478. p. 137. Sir  Gervase  Clifton, 1491. p. 136. George Clifton, Esq., 1587, and his Dame Winifred p. 127. "Arms, Armour and Alabaster" for Monuments of Knight and Lady (date unknown).
(3) The gargoyles were on the tower, and on the north side of the nave and transept. Two have been entirely destroyed, and two others are now defaced. (1920).