Mansfield takes a high place in the list of firms making fancy tin boxes and art printing. Many of the productions are works of art, and are found in all parts of the world. From a modest beginning in the year 1890 one firm has succeeded in attaining a pre-eminent position in this branch of industry. Seven years later the amount of labour available not being equal to the firm's requirements, it was found necessary to acquire works at Sutton-in-Ashfield, which premises have also been very largely added to since their first occupation, and the number of hands employed to-day by the firm approximates 1,500. One feature which has conduced to their success is the fact that they are self-contained, employing their own engineers for the making of the tools and dies used in the manufacture of the articles they produce. A large staff of artists and designers are permanently employed. The welfare of the employees is always considered, the workrooms being spacious, well lighted, and at each factory there are large dining-rooms and kitchens, and at their main works they have an entertainment hall replete with stage, scenery and accessories. This firm had the honour of receiving royal warrants of appointment to His Majesty King George V., Queen Mary, the late King Edward VII., the late Queen Victoria, and His Majesty the King of the Belgians. A large proportion of the boxes containing chocolate, which were sent out to the troops in South Africa by Queen Victoria, and all the boxes distributed in connection with the Coronation festivities of King Edward VII. and King George V., were made here. In 1913 over 33,000,000 finished articles were manufactured. These articles comprised decorated metal vases, caskets, boxes, canisters, metal show tablets and advertising media. For the manufacture of these articles over 8,500,000 sheets of tin plates were used, weighing 4,000 tons. Just prior to the outbreak of war in 1914 the King and Queen visited these works at Mansfield. During the period of the war the firm was employed almost exclusively on war work, making millions of respirators to enable the men to combat the poison gas released by the enemy. Shortly after the outbreak of war they commenced the manufacture of mechanical toys, with a view to capturing a share of what had hitherto been practically a German monopoly. Despite the fact that during the last two years of the War they had to suspend this new development in favour of munition-making, they are again turning their attention to this branch of the business, and have recently acquired another factory, which adjoins their Mansfield premises, which will be solely devoted to the manufacture of toys.

The hosiery industry gives employment to many workers, male and female. Strangers to the town cannot fail to notice the large number of cottages with a long line of top storey windows. These were inserted to give light to the old stocking makers of a past generation as they worked at the hired frames. It is said that as many as 700 hand-frames were in the town in 1800, but they have now been superseded by more modern machinery. The old stockingers worked and played when they liked, and that tended in no small degree to produce the all-England cricketers that Sutton-in-Ashfield and neighbourhood sent out as professionals. The late Mr. Samuel Ward was the first to introduce power frames into Mansfield, and the rotaries gradually displaced the hand-frames. In 1881 Cotton's patent machine was introduced, and the rotary is following, or has followed, the old hand-frame to the scrap heap. Some idea of the importance of this branch of industry to the district may be gathered from the fact that 1,092 persons are engaged in it in Mansfield, 2,140 close by at Sutton-in-Ashfield, 150 at Mansfield Woodhouse, and a large number at Huthwaite. The quality of hosiery made in this district reaches a high standard, and in addition to hose, half-hose and underwear, gloves and .ties are made. One of the firms makes a lot of silk goods. Here, again, we find female labour predominates. Take the district through, the proportion is about seven to two.

Although Mansfield is not regarded as one of the great boot and shoe trade centres, the manufacture of these goods is a very important one to the town, seeing that one company employs more than 600 hands at their two factories. This firm, during the progress of the war, was busily employed on Array contracts. A special line they were entrusted with was the manufacture of the thigh boots for pilots and observers of the Royal Air Force, and they also turned out hundreds of thousands of other kinds of boots and shoes, an enormous number for the R.A.M.C. An interesting fact about one mill is that some of the power for driving the machinery is derived from the water that passes from the lake down into the river bed after setting in motion an enormous water-wheel, one of the biggest in the country. The water-wheel mills along the banks of the Maun were erected by the late Duke of Portland.

There are several iron foundries in the borough, and most of them are old-established firms, and there is an engineering company that is to-day employing a large number of workmen. Most, if not all, were busily employed from the outbreak of war on munitions work to help, even in a small way, to defeat the Central Powers. And more was done in this way than the general inhabitants of the town have any knowledge of. The moulding and turning shops were busily engaged in shell-making and turning them, ready to receive the explosive contents, and they were also employed on other kinds of Government work, as was many times stated before the Tribunal when employers sought to retain men on this highly necessary war work. Not only were the shells turned out at Mansfield, but the bullets were manufactured here, one firm turning out no fewer than 12½ millions per week. In addition to this the same firm made large quantities of iron shot for tanks

In a general way the ironfounders of Mansfield send out of their works all manner of castings from the small article to the large ones weighing several tons. Many pulsometer and specialities in pumps and condensing and cooling plants are cast, and a considerable trade is done in radiators and gilled pipes for steam heating. Much ornamental work, too, is made, notable examples being the staircases at the Grand Hotel and Hotel Metropole, London. Rain-water goods, hot-water apparatus, gas and water pipes, columns, stoves, gratings, windows, &c., are amongst the goods turned out. There is in the borough a wonderful supply of the best moulding sand to be found anywhere.

For over a century cotton doubling has found employment for workpeople in Mansfield, but of recent years the industry has grown, and there are to-day four important firms employing over 1,000 persons, the greater portion being females. The class of yarns made are those most in request for making laces, ribbons, and voile dress pieces. In normal times they range from 60s. to 240s., but during the war they averaged about 100s. One might speculate as to the way in which the cotton doubling industry might do its bit for the country during the big crisis. It seems that yarns were made for the covering of aeroplane wings, and mosquito nets for use in countries where these pests exist.

Other trades are electrical engineering, building, brush-making, brass casting, sweet boiling, motor body building, jam boiling, brewing, etc.