But as this article is limited in length, and professes to be mainly on the house and its builder, we will pass with a touch such family worthies as the Lord Chief Justice of the Second Edward's time, and that earlier Sir Richard who lies beside his wife in sculptured splendour in the old chapel at Willughby-on-the-Wolds; also Hugh the priest, unlawful progenitor of the Willughbys of Risely (in Derbyshire), a spot now ignorant of their name;  also Sir Hugh, who married Marion de Freville, heiress of Middleton, and brought Warwickshire lands into the family; and whose noble will still lies in York Minster. And Henry, Knight Banneret of Stoke, in 1487; who was also a Knight of the Sepulchre, and accompanied his kinsman, the Marquis of Dorset, into Spain, intending to invade France; and was the Sir Henry Willughby at the Field of the Cloth of Gold.

There exists yet the parchment, sealed,—"Sir Jo. Willughby, his patent, when he was created Kt. Hospitaller at Jerusalem," 1521, which sets forth that he had visited the Holy Shrine, Bethlehem, Olivet, Calvary, etc. ; and he was probably the Sir J. Willughby who fought at Flodden held.

His next brother, Sir Edward, was father to that second Henry who became heir to his grandfather, and marrying the Lady Anne Grey, daughter to the Marquis of Dorset and sister to the Duke of Suffolk (whose child was the ill-fated Lady Jane Grey), was, through her, father of Francis, the builder of Wollaton Hall. Henry Willughby outlived Lady Anne by two years, and was killed by the rebels at Norwich August 27, 1546, and his three orphaned children were left to the care of their mother's relations, the Greys. Thomas Willughby, the eldest, married a daughter of "ye Lord Paget," and died young, s. p. ; Francis, the younger brother (and "builder"), and Margaret were removed to their nearest relations, the Greys, at Tyltey. Then, in 1555, Margaret went to the "Lady Elizabeth" at Hatfield; and three years later married Sir Matthew Arundell of Wardour. Francis married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Lyttleton of Frankley, against the wish of his sister, Lady Arundell, who went in for "Astronomical talk, and Mathematical books in ye Italian tongue," and appears to have been rather a formidable being; while Lady Willughby, on her part, possessed a proud and passionate temper: the two ladies between them making life difficult for Sir Francis.

Queen Elizabeth proposed to visit the old house of Wollaton, —and the letter is still in existence from Sir Francis Knollys to its owner, saying :

"You are not to defray Her Majesty, but rather yt you should give her some good present of beefs and muttons, and to keep a good Table yourself in some place . . . but you had need to consider how your provision of drink may hold out." This consideration for a subject's pocket was not usual with the Queen, and was probably a special mark of favour to her connexion; since he could not plead impecuniosity; and, indeed, is told by his adviser that his "number of servants [in attendance] should in no wise be less than fifty."

The Duchess appears to have found among "ye olde papers " no detailed account of Elizabeth's visit to Wollaton ; but it may have been this visit that proved to Francis the unfitness of the ancient building to hold his "great estate," and enable him to maintain the princely hospitality that seems to have been his pleasure. "He appears to have been of a very mild and sweet disposition, and a lover of hospitality," testifies his descendant. "But," says she, "Before Sir F. began to build I believe he had a great estate in money; but before he had near finished building, it appears from ye olde letters yt he wanted money, and was thinking of selling estates to pay for it."

A not uncommon result of large building: how little will experience instruct in like matters!

However, the great work, begun in 1580, was not completed till 1588, though Sir Francis seems to have entertained there at an earlier date.

"Ye old Hall [writes the Duchess of Chandos] was built near ye Church; what now remains of ye old Building is turned into 3 or 4 farm Houses, of which one is a quarter of a mile from ye rest, wch was ye dairy house to ye old Hall.

"Ye new House is placed upon a Hill, about half a mile from ye old Hall, from whence there is a very noble prospect of ye country round it: one side of ye House looks upon ye Castle and town of Nottingham; from another there is a fine view of Clifton House and gardens, ye seat of Sir Gervas Clifton; from ye other sides of ye House there is a prospect of several Houses and little villages, and each corner and middle of ye House, pretty near point to Churches, wch are about 2 or 3 miles off. The House itself is a very noble Pile of Building, but it being less easy to describe it by writing than by drawing, I design to place at ye end of this Book, a draught, and a plan of it, and shall therefor only mention here yt Sir Francis Willughby began this Building [dates as above]. Ye Master workmen wch Built ye House, he sent for out of Italy, as also most of ye Stone figures wch adorn ye House. All ye Stone wch it is built wh was brought from Ancaster in Lincolnshire by ye people who dwelt there, and who exchanged their Stone, with Sir F. for his Cole, wch they carried back from Wollaton; but notwithstanding ye Stone and its carriage cost nothing but ye return of Cole wch Sir F. made for it, and yt at yt time labourers' wages were very small, yet it appears by a very particular account of ye Building wch still remains in ye library yt ye Building of ye House cost Sir F. W. four-score thousand pounds."
This was a very large sum indeed, according to money values of Elizabeth's time.

But the draft or drawing promised by Cassandra is not in her first volume. The plans are, I believe, among John Thorpe's designs in Sir John Soane's Museum; and these at once settle the question of "Bedlam," that great top-storey tower so puzzling to architects; for the original is there as at present realised. And the great strength of its supporting walls proves that weight was destined to be imposed on them.