IT will perhaps add to the pleasure of Mr. Hammond's drawings if we recall to our minds something of the history and topography of bygone Nottingham; and the plan—originally published in the year 1844 and reproduced at the end of the volume—will help us to realise the appearance of Nottingham on the eve of modern industrial developments. But first let us remind ourselves of the story of Nottingham. Long before man appeared upon the scene the site was a long low cliff, clear of trees, facing southwards over an extensive jungle formed by the over-flow of the Trent and the Leen, and engirdled towards the north, the east and the west, by great forest lands—represented in modern times by the names Sherwood and Thorneywood. This low cliff terminated in a promontory at either end; the eastern one which we know as St. Mary's Hill was the earlier occupied, while the western one—upon which the Castle now stands— does not come into history until a much later period.

So there was some settlement in very early times in the neighbourhood of the site of St. Mary's Church : we do not know its size or what it was like; but it is very probable that some of the dwellings were hollowed out of the soft sandstone rock.

During the Roman period the district was occupied by a British tribe called the 'Coritanii'; and soon after the withdrawal of the Roman Government, Nottingham occurs in history under the curious name of 'Tigguocobauc' which is said to mean cave dwellings. This settlement was surrounded by some sort of defence and its limits—fortified a thousand years ago by Edward the Elder—were these : taking the line of the cliff overhanging Narrow Marsh as their southern boundary; they extended approximately along Bridlesmith Gate, Victoria Street, Goose Gate, Hockley, Carter Gate and Fisher Gate.

When the Normans came they established a castle, on the site of the present Castle buildings, and around it grew up a township, inhabited by the French followers of Peverel, the first lord of the castle : this township gradually developed, and—together with the ancient borough on St. Mary's Hill—achieved considerable wealth and importance. It suffered terrible things during the reign of Stephen, being sacked by Matilda's army under the Duke of Gloucester. To prevent a recurrence of any such tragedy, the inhabitants were encouraged by Henry II.—some time about the year 1154—to protect themselves by a great wall and ditch, some portions of which still remain. Starting at Postern Street this wall continued—roughly speaking—along Park Row, Parliament Street, St. John's Street, Count Street, Carter Gate and Fisher Gate; it then incorporated the old defences along the summit of the Marsh precipice, continued down Low Pavement, along Castle Gate and Walnut Tree Lane until it rejoined the Castle fortifications just south of the present entrance. It is within these very narrow limits that we must look for objects of antiquarian interest in Nottingham.

Now we will turn to the plan : Obviously the most interesting features are the old streets, and a few notes about their names and history may serve as an introduction to Mr. Hammond's pictures. Starting at the Castle entrance and following up the road which we know as Standard Hill—but which was previously spoken of as the 'Hollows'—we arrive at Postern Street; so called because at its extremity, where it meets Park Row, stood a postern to the Castle fortifications, erected by the order of Henry III. On either side of this street was once a great artificial mound; both of these have long disappeared, but upon the summit of the northern mound was erected a windmill, which accounts for the fact that Postern Street was anciently called 'Windmill Passage'. Park Row is quite a modern street; it was formed about the year 1800 on ground previously called the 'Butt Dykes'; it occupies the site of the ditch—on the outer side of Henry IPs wall—in which were the butts used by archers all through the middle ages, when archery practice was compulsory. The plan shows the lower part of Park Row very much constricted by St. Nicholas' workhouse which occupied the present site of the Chapel Bar Post Office and its attendant buildings; this workhouse was erected in 1815, in succession to the buildings which we know as 'Jessamine Cottages'. At the top of Chapel Bar stood the 'Bar' or gateway—the western entrance through the town defences : in appearance it was very like the present entrance to the Castle, and it was not pulled down until 1743.

The lower part of Derby Road was called 'Toll House Hill', because in it was situated the office in which the tolls, or town dues were collected; and near by is Poynton Street—named alter a certain widow Poynton, who was ducked as a scold, in 1619.

Parliament Street is a wide thoroughfare because it occupies the site of part of the town defences, including the outer ditch, the town wall and the inner walk—used as a mustering ground for the defenders. Wollaton Street was called 'Back Lane'; and out of Wollaton Street is the little Mill Street in which Hargreaves built the first cotton mill in the world, about 1767. Sherwood Street, from Parliament Street to Babbington Street, was called 'Shaws Lane'; but its northern portion from Babbington Street onward was always called Sherwood Street; in it was situated the Jews' burial ground which still remains on the eastern side. Close to this burial ground were the northern water works of the town.

At the end of Clumber Street, stood the northern town gateway which was called the 'North Gate', or more usually 'Cow Lane Bar'. Clumber Street itself was called 'Cow Lane' and was an extremely narrow street. In 1812 it was widened, and received its present name out of compliment to the Duke of Newcastle who gave a considerable strip of land to allow of this widening. On its western side stood the 'White Lion Inn' which still remains as the 'Lion Hotel' : and the curious one-story buildings tell the tale of its court-yard and the disadvantages of adverse rights of light. This 'White Lion' was one of the great coaching inns of Nottingham, second onlv to the 'Blackamore's Head'; it contained a celebrated cockpit and was the rendezvous of many great men of the past.

Milton Street, formerly 'Boot Lane', led northwards to Mansfield Road and so up the hill to the village of Whiston which was situated about where St. Andrew's Church now stands. At the summit of the hill—until the early part of the nineteenth century—stood the gallows ; and the district was known as 'Gallows Hill' : however, its name was changed to Mars Hill in consideration for the susceptibilities of the residents. Lower Parliament Street leads into St. John's Street, on the northern side of which was established in the year 1215 the hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. The order was dissolved in 1539 and its estate given to the Corporation to enable them to keep Trent Bridge in repair, and the site of its houses was used for the erection of a prison.

Coalpit Lane was opened up about 1590, to make an easy gradient for handling the coal traffic from Wollaton pits : it leads down to Hockley—an obscure name—and out of Hockley runs Count Street, named after Count Palavinci, an Italian, who settled down here and conducted a glass business in the eighteenth century; the site of his operations being commemorated in the name of Old Glasshouse Street. Woolpack Lane, leading out of Count Street was called 'Newark Lane' and Barker Gate—a little to the south—was the first settlement of the barkers or tanners. Bellar Gate— spoken of in 1315 as 'Belward Gate'—was probably an early settlement of the bell-founders, who were such an important body in mediaeval Nottingham; and Plumptre Street reminds us of the great family to which Nottingham owes so much.

At the foot of Hollowstone, near its juncture with Fisher Gate, stood the southern entrance to the town. Until well into the eighteenth century, there was no Arkwright Street and the only way towards the south was along the line of Bridge Street and London Road. Hollowstone acquired its name from the fact that it was hollowed out of the rock; and the intricate passages which lead off from Hollowstone, Shorthill and High Pavement are full of interest.

Stoney Street is very interesting for its name; it is one of the very few 'Streets' that we have in Nottingham. During the time our routes of traffic were becoming settled, the Danes were the predominant people in the town and their word for what we call a street was 'gate', which accounts for the large number of 'gates' that we have in Nottingham; also their word for gate was 'bar'. Stoney Street was not a thoroughfare until quite modern times; it terminated abruptly at the end of St. Mary's Churchyard, and it was not until the high ground near the top of Hollowstone was cut away and made practicable for traffic, that it was possible to form a thoroughfare. In it was situated on the western side, close to St. Mary's Churchyard, the great Plumptre mansion, only pulled down about eighty years ago; while on the southern side was a wonderful house—occupied by the Pierrepont family—the site of which is now occupied by Messrs. Heymann & Alexander's warehouse. The High, Middle and Low Pavements were of great importance; they were probably the earliest paved streets in Nottingham—hence their name.

Kayes Walk—so called after the Rev. Sir Richard Kaye, Bart., who was a prebendary and Dean of Lincoln and Archdeacon of Nottingham, and who died in 1809—leads from Stoney Street to St. Mary's Gate. On the west side of St. Mary's Gate is Pilcher Gate, formerly the abode of the manufacturers of 'pilchers', or fur lined coats which were freely worn in early days. Warser Gate, at the northern extremity of St. Mary's Gate, is a corruption of 'Walsete Gate' and indicates the position of the northern enclosure of Nottingham before the Conquest.

Through Warser Gate we reach Fletcher Gate which has a curious history: originally the abode of the flechers or arrow makers, it became the residence of the butchers and its name was changed to 'Blowbladder Street'—having previously been spoken of as 'Mont Hall Gate', because it led to the Mont Hall or Moot Hall of Nottingham. Later, in the year 1800, a part of it became known as 'Market Street' and now it is again called by its ancient name 'Fletcher Gate'. Leading from Fletcher Gate to Bridle-smith Gate is the tiny street called Byard Lane, which represents the western entrance through the Pre-Conquest fortifications of Nottingham, and, in 1315 was spoken of as 'Walloon Lane'—this is probably a corruption of 'wall in lane' having, of course, a reference to the town defences.

Bridlesmith Gate bears its origin in its name, and from its extremity branched out to the eastward Bottle Lane—which still remains—and Chandlers Lane which has been improved into the modern Victoria Street. The western ends of these two thoroughfares were joined by a narrow passage called 'Queen Street'—now in a very much widened form 'Old Queen Street'. It leads into Carlton Street, anciently called 'Swine Green', where it is probable that the first great prescriptive fair of St. Matthew, now called 'Goose Fair', was held. Goose Gate was named after one Robert Gos, a mediaeval goldsmith. Pelham Street was called 'Girdlesmith Gate'—a corruption of 'Great Smith Gate'—and led down to the market place.

The Great Market or Saturday Market was founded immediately after the Conquest by William Peverel and was used as a weekly market to which all the countryside resorted : the daily market for the townsfolk of Nottingham was at Weekday Cross. Names round the Great Market Place are interesting: Long Row and Smithy Row are unchanged, but the ancient 'Cuckstool Row' is now the Poultry, while South Parade was called 'Timber Hill' until quite recent times. Cheapside was called 'Rotten Row' from 1666 to 1810.

Out of the Market Place leads Market Street—a development of the old 'Sheep Lane' or 'Organ Lane' as it was earlier called. The first intention was to call Market Street 'Theatre Street', but this was abandoned for the more dignified name. Mount Street is named from Derry Mount at its summit, but was anciently spoken of as 'Bearward Lane' : the last bearward in Nottingham was mentioned in 1577. Friar Lane is a very interesting street; leading out of it is Friar Yard in which remains a delightful building incorporating all that is left of the house of the Carmelites or White Friars—who were very important in their day. This house was occupied by Dorothy Vernon and her husband John Manners in the year 1571.

Wheeler Gate, leading down to St. Peter's Square took its name from the wheelwrights who resorted thither, but earlier than their day it was called 'Baxter Gate' because of the bakers who plied their trade in this district.

Houndsgate and Spaniel Row suggest the kennels of the Royal Castle; and out of Houndsgate leads St. Nicholas Street originally called 'Jew Lane'—for it was the ghetto of Nottingham. Albert Street was not made until 1846; previously the traffic from the Market Place to Lister Gate had to struggle through St. Peter's Church Side and Church Street.

Castle Gate was called 'French Gate' and contains many magnificent houses; it was formed soon after the Conquest. Walnut Tree Lane reminds us of the orchards attached to the Castle. In Grey Friar Gate was situated the house of the Franciscans or Grey Friars, while Lister Gate was occupied by the Litsters or dyers. Broad Marsh and Narrow Marsh have names of obvious origin.

Drury Hill has no connection with the Drury Lane of London; it was named after Alderman Drury who, in 1645, occupied the magnificent mansion still standing on its summit. Sussex Street is a modern name for 'Turncalf Alley' which is a colloquialism for 'Town Wharf Alley'; for it led down to the Town Wharf situated at its southern extremity.

From these few observations it will be seen what an interesting study the old streets of Nottingham present to anyone with a little antiquarian knowledge; and it is hoped that these beautiful drawings with which Mr. Hammond has enriched us, will enable very many people to appreciate the beauty of our ancient town more than they have hitherto done.