JAMES TENNANT, (1808-1881), Mineralogist, was born at Upton, near Southwell. He was employed in the shop of Mr. Mawe, a dealer in minerals and shells; he thoroughly learnt, and afterwards managed, and later purchased the business. He attended the lectures of Faraday, at the Royal Institution, and so qualified himself that he was appointed professor of mineralogy at King's College. He was also lecturer on geology and mineralogy at Woolwich. An earnest advocate of technical education, he gave liberally to help the cause. He superintended the cutting of the Koh-i-noor, and was appointed mineralogist to Queen Victoria. A Fellow of the Geological Society, he was President of the Geological Association in 1862-3. He wrote a Catalogue of Fossils formed in the British Isles, and other books.

JOHN FARMER, (1835-1901), was a musician, and came of a musical family, for his father, although a lace manufacturer in Nottingham, was a skilled violinist, and his mother, who kept a milliner's shop the next door to the Talbot Inn, on Long Row, was musical also. His grandfather, John Farmer, was a glee singer, and kept the "Crown and Cushion Inn," Weekday Cross, with a music hall in the rear. Young Farmer went to school at Mr. Ward's, Hucknall, and would amuse his fellows by fetching music out of a stick, or other object. He was apprenticed to his uncle, Henry Farmer, a music dealer and composer, in High Street,, and thence he went to Germany, where he spent several years in studying music. On returning, he was sent into his father's warehouse in London, but he had no heart for trade, and on the death of his mother, in 1857, he ran away to Zurich. In 1861 he came back to England, and the following year was employed for musical purposes at the Great Exhibition. He became Song Master at Harrow School in 1864. There, by dint of energy and humour, he made the boys fond of singing. "He set himself to make music reach every stratum of school society. The twelve houses at Harrow he visited fortnightly, and set them all a-singing. Bathed in perspiration, and with assumed eccentricity, he kept the boys in roars of laughter by his mimicry of the stockingers of Hucknall, but his humour had always a moral or social significance. "Cinderella," the children's Opera, and the children's Oratorio, "Christ and His Soldiers," "Songs for Colleges and Schools," "Songs for Soldiers and Sailors," were among his chief works, but his work was greater than his compositions, for he had made music a popular means of expression to a great school of English boys. He had shown what a strong bond of union music may become.

Lord Ernest Hamilton, in his Autobiographies, one volume of which he entitles "Forty years on," from a song of Farmer's, tells of the great influence for good that Farmer exercised on the Harrow boys. Edward Bowen composed the words, and Farmer the music of many songs which appear in Farmer's books, but the boys gave little credit to the poet, nearly all being allotted to the song master, yet after "Forty years on," the Bowen and Farmer combination, both for prolifieness and for the sustained high level of its work, must always stand pre-eminent. (Chapter VI.).

In 1885, on the invitation of the celebrated Dr. Butler, he went to attach himself to Oxford University. During the last twenty-five years of his life he was the musical adviser to the Girls' Public Day School Company, and held also various other appointments. He died at Oxford, in 1901, aged sixty-six.

REV. JOHN E. SYMES, M.A., (1847-1921), ex-Principal at the Nottingham University College, wats educated at London University College School and Downing College, Cambridge. He took his B.A. in 1871 and M.A. three years later. At Lancing College, Chichester Diocese, he was ordained. He became an University Extension Lecturer, and in that capacity lecturer at Nottingham under a scheme inaugurated by Professor Stuart, Dr. Paton, and others. In 1881, he with Dr. Clowes, Dr. Fleming, and the Rev. J. P. Blake, were appointed as the staff of the new University College at Nottingham, Mr. Symes being Professor of Literature, and in 1890 he became Principal, and so continued twenty-two years, when he resigned and was made Emeritus Professor. He afterwards became Honorary Organizing Secretary of the Churchman's Union. He died at Palermo in Italy.

The establishment of a Normal Department for Day Training Classes for intending Elementary Teachers and others, was promoted by him, and successfully launched under Mr. Henderson and Miss Bird, and was a great convenience to many persons. During his Principalship several other departments were added.

He wrote "Political Economy," a "Companion to English History," and various other works concerning church and social questions, on which his views were considered somewhat advanced, for his heart yearned over the plethora of wealth combined with the depths of poverty of the existing system. (From paper by Rev. G. W. C. Ward).

AMOS HENDERSON, B.A., (d. 1922), was Professor of Education at University College, Nottingham, and he and Mrs. Henderson had charge of a Hostel for students at Mapperley Hall. He had been educated at Borough Road College, and held the Cambridge Teachers diploma with distinction, and later he wrote a handbook, "Some Notes on Teaching." He was for three years Assistant Teacher at the People's College, under Mr. Edward Francis, F.C.S., but when the Nottingham Day Training Department for Training Elementary Teachers was formed at University College (being one of the first five Training Departments established in the country after the Act of 1890) he was appointed Normal Master, and later, Professor of Education, and this work he continued thirty-two years. "He came from time to time," says Professor Granger, "into touch with each of his one hundred and fifty students, and, from the beginning of each session, knew their names within a fortnight." For seven years he acted as Honorary Secretary of the East Midland Educational Union.

He was happy in his work, very musical in his tastes, equally at home whether lecturing on mathematics or music, quiet and unassuming, his influence upon the lives and character of his students was considerable and lasting, making them to realise "that no amount of knowledge can be of any use in this world unless it be coupled with the wisdom of brotherly love and service."

FRANK CLOWES, (1848-1923), D.Sc, F.I.C., F.C.S., M.R.I., an eminent chemist and gas expert, was in 1881 appointed Professor of Chemistry at University College, Nottingham, and so continued sixteen years. He was the first Principal of the College, and after his retirement he was given the title of Emeritus Professor. He became Chemical Adviser to the London County Council, and Director of the Council's staff and laboratory. The Societies of which he was president, or other official, or member, are too numerous to be here enumerated. He was the author of many papers on analytical chemistry, and of text books which have become standard works. His papers were read before the Royal Society, the Royal Institute of British Architects, the Society of Chemical Industry, etc. He died at his residence at Dulwich.


EDWARD FRANCIS, (1845-1918), was the last Head Master of the People's College, Nottingham, as Hugo Reed was the first, sixty years before, who was a writer of valuable contributions in works on physical science. When that College was opened there was no higher education in Nottingham available for young men who wanted to gain mental development, and increased business capacity, through a training in knowledge of the sciences and languages at a moderate cost, but in process of time the University College and two Secondary Schools had been erected and supplied the want, so the People's College was reduced to a Higher Grade School to which Mr. Francis was appointed (1st January, 1883) and the School and its Master were in 1905 transferred to High Pavement Secondary School, the older building becoming an Elementary School. The record of Mr. Francis at the People's College was:—"one of the most popular and successful Head Masters."

He was a man of all-round attainments, being almost equally proficient in science, languages, music, art, literature and athletics, and was most thoroughly at home when taking part in the actual teaching of his scholars. His efforts were not limited to making good scholars, but were aimed at producing good and useful citizens. (W. J. Abel).

REV. JAMES GOW, (1844-1923), M.A., Litt. D. Camb., was Head Master of Westminster School, 1901-19, and previously Head Master of Nottingham High School, 1885-1901, during which period the number of pupils was doubled. His earlier work was as Cambridge University Extension Lecturer. He afterwards went to the Bar of Lincoln's Inn. To qualify for Westminster it was desirable that he should be clerically ordained. At this School he was a conspicuous success, and the school filled, he having the advantage of being a trained lawyer, a student of music, and at home in mathematics, science, and modem languages. In theology he belonged to the broad school. He was the author of a work on Greek mathematics, of the standard Companion to the Classics, and of one of the standard editions of Horace. He was President of the Head Masters' Association, and twice Chairman of their Conferences. See his memoir, by R. M. Barrington Ward, (Macmillan & Co.).

WILLIAM HUGH, (1835-1920), was in 1861 appointed Head Master of the High Pavement School, Nottingham, when it became what was then called a British School, with Government inspection. In 1870, the passing of the Education Act changed it into a Higher Grade School. Science and Art being introduced in 1876, it developed into the first organized Science School in England. In 1891 the School was transferred to the School Board, and in 1895 with its name, its Head Master and scholars, it was removed to new buildings on Stanley Road, becoming in 1904 one of two Secondary Schools in the city.

From 1861 to 1905, Mr. Hugh was not only the teacher but also the guiding spirit of the school, with its success in science, in music, in educational development, and, what is more important, in the building up of the character of the children committed to his care. On his seventieth birthday, December 1st, 1905, a presentation was made to him of a gold watch and £110. The fifty years as a school master did not terminate his work, for he then became examiner of candidates for special scholarships in the secondary schools of the city. He was the author of a small selection of poems, called "Gathered Leaves." Here is one stanza:

"O love of God! a present incarnation
Be in this heart, that I may kiss the rod,
And, like the Christ, receive the inspiration
To feel, to live, to die for love of God."


REV. JOHN BROWN PATON, M.A., D.D., (1830-1911), for forty-three years lived in the house forming the Western wing of the Paton Congregational College, Nottingham. He was born at Galston, in Ayrshire, his father being a. hand-loom weaver and small shopkeeper; a handy man, who could mend watches; a thoughtful man, who belonged to the Literary and Philosophical Society; a religious man, interested in church work, in whom life was less than duty, and who was the constant companion of his son. At the age of ten the boy's schooling came to an end, when he went into the printing office of the "Kilmarnock Herald," then edited by Alexander Russell, afterwards famous as editor of the "Scotsman." After being there a year he went South to Cheltenham, where his uncle was a minister, and the boy was appointed usher in a school at Gloucester, and at fifteen he began to preach. At sixteen, he became a student at the Springhill College, Birmingham, for the training of Independent ministers, where he continued seven years, and finished his college course by winning a double M.A., at London University. He became pastor of the Wicker Church, Sheffield, where he built a church, formed a Village Preachers' Association, actively joined in town social work, helped Dr. Joseph Parker to found the Cavendish College at Manchester, and married a worthy helpmeet.

When it was decided to form a Congregational College at Nottingham, the choice of a Principal fell on Mr. Paton, because of his boundless energy, joined with spiritual power, a love of knowledge, his delight in imparting that knowledge to young men, and the experience he had gained in training lay preachers at Sheffield. The work began in 1863, and the building was erected, and opened in 1868, with Dr. Paton as Founder and Principal.

The Institute was, however, only one of a multitude of objects in which his energies were directed. His sympathies were larger than his denomination, and he would, as far as practicable, bind the whole of the religious bodies in united sanctified effort. He welcomed and sought to aid the Old Catholic movement on the Continent. He promoted the University Extension Lectures, which resulted in the formation of the Nottingham University College. He took an active part in the early School Board elections. He promoted Continuation Schools, Social Institutes, and Recreative Evening Homes, Working Men's Polytechnics. He formed the National Home Reading Union, and promoted Cooperative Holidays. He would have Temperance Public Houses, and have boys trained, and drilled in a Life Brigade, without the military accompaniments. Probably, the effort that occupied him most was the ''Colony of Mercy," for taking able-bodied men who were down in the world, and training them to work on the land until they had gained confidence and self-respect. For this purpose a farm was obtained at Lingfield, twenty-six miles south-east from London, and here was formed the "Home for Epileptic Children", and in these and like efforts was formed the Christian Social Service Union, in which Christians of all creeds were invited to cooperate.

Time would fail to tell of all the efforts in which he joined, for it was said "he could drive six horses abreast," and in addition to all his duties in the College, and the various schemes in hand, he was for a long time the Editor of the "Eclectic Review," and joint Editor of the "Contemporary Review," and wrote numbers of articles.

The University of Glasgow, in 1882, conferred on him its D.D. in acknowledgment of his writings and work. On his retirement from the Principalship, after thirty-five years of service, an address of love, inspiration, and veneration was accompanied by the presentation of a pony carriage and a bureau. A full length portrait of Dr. Paton was painted by Mr. Arnesby Brown, B.A., an artist whom Nottingham claims as a native. It was presented to the city, and a replica of it was presented to Mrs. Paton, and £150, being the balance of the subscription fund, was given towards furnishing the Epileptic Home at Lingfield. He died at the age of eighty-one, and at his funeral, addresses were delivered by the Rev. F. B. Meyer and Principal Ritchie, the prayer of committal was read by the Dean of Norwich, the parting word of benediction was given by the saintly Bishop of Hereford, and the boy buglers sounded the Last Post over the valley where for forty years the deceased lived, toiled, and prayed. "So he came to his grave in a full age, like as a shock of corn cometh in its season."

"'Tis so to live that when the sun
Of our existence sinks in night,

Memorials sweet of duties done May shrine our names in Memory's light, And the blest seeds we scatter, bloom A hundredfold in days to come."

(See "John Brown Paton, a Biography by his son, John Lewis Paton, High Master of the Manchester Grammar School.")

FREDERIC EDWARD BUMBY, B.A., (d. 1915), was for about twenty years Lecturer in English at the University College, but he had a much wider outlook than that of a professor only. When he left the Manchester Grammar School at the age of fourteen he was at the head in modem languages, and in 1885 he became a full time student at Owen's College, and after a three years course was appointed assistant in the work of the great Oxford English Dictionary, and for twenty-seven years he continued one of the honorary readers of the Dictionary press. In 1887 he became English tutor at the Nottingham Congregational Institute, and during the illness of Dr. Paton he was acting principal. In 1897 he became connected with the University College. Nearly every Sunday he officiated in the religious services of the Free Churches in the city and district. He was a man broad in his sympathies and helpful in his services. When the Great War broke out he devoted his leisure time to work for the public good. As a special constable he did more work at what are called "point duties,"—directing street traffic at dangerous crossings —than any other member of his company, with one exception: but he said he valued the weekly day of rest and worship so highly that he would not attend at drills on Sunday forenoon.

DR. T. WITTON DAVIES, (?1851-1923), was an example of how one may rise with effort. He began as a wage-earner at eight years of age in an iron works, where he remained till he was twenty-one. He was trained at Regent's Park College and London University, became a Baptist minister in 1879, and two years later was "classical" tutor at Haverfordwest College, at the same time acting as Honorary Pastor of six Baptist churches. From 1892 to 1899 he was President of the Baptist College at Nottingham, and became Lecturer in Arabic and Syrian at Nottingham University College, and later Professor at Bangor University College. He held degrees from Durham, Leipzig, and Geneva Universities.


ROBERT WHITE, (1694-1773), born at Bingham, was there a very useful schoolmaster, and more than that, and his tomb tablet is inscribed in the parish church. His parents were poor, and he was a cripple, having an infirmity in his legs and thighs, so he received what was then called a liberal education, which he afterwards used for the good of the children around him. He studied the classics, and "particularly the sublime Art of astronomy." He compiled Almanacks for the Worshipful Company of Stationers, and in 1750 he prepared a "Celestial Atlas containing a new Ephemeris of the planetary motions and a complete Almanac." He would have come to great honour but for his modesty and infirmities, but the tablet well says:—

"No Epitaph need make the Just man famed,
The good are prais'd, when they are only named."

His widow reached the ninetieth year of her age.

The school, and the compilation of almanacs, were continued by his pupil Daniel Stafford, who died in 1783.

THOMAS PEET, (1708-1780), was an eminent mathematician, astronomer, schoolmaster and land surveyor residing in Greyfriars Gate, Nottingham. As a boy he had every obstacle thrown in his way, but was determined to get knowledge, and Mr. Wildbore, a dyer, kindly lent him books. He compiled "The Gentlemen's Diary," and "Poor Robin Almanack," forty years.

REV. MOUNTAGUE WOOD, (d. 1741), must have credit for founding and endowing the School at Wood-borough, in 1736, with lands situate in Woodborough, Blidworth and Stapleford, together being about sixty acres, but—

THE OLDACRES FAMILY must have credit for worthily carrying out the founder's desire. They remind us of Goldsmith's Vicar:—

"A man he was to all the country dear,
And passing rich with forty pounds a year."

For three generations they taught the Woodborough children in the day school, and discharged the duties of Vicar of the parish, on a miserable stipend, and this service; continued one hundred and twelve years.

RICHARD OLDACRES, (d. 1785), was "in 1741 put to business in Derby, where in about fourteen years he made himself master of almost every part of mathematics and natural philosophy." He taught day and evening schools. When appointed school master at Woodborough, in 1763, the salary was £20 a year and house, and later £30. He fitted himself for ordination, and in 1771 became, in addition to his school work, stipendary curate, the church income then being £39 a year, but £23 was retained by the non-resident incumbent. He took in boarders, and spent two-thirds of his income in enlarging the school. After twenty-two years work he was succeeded, as curate and school master, by his son, the REV. SAMUEL OLDACRES, and he, by the REV. JAMES HEWES, who had married Richard's sister; he being in 1837 succeeded by the REV. S. L. OLDACRES, Richard's grandson, his income being £112 a year, but he spent £560 on improvements on the school premises. He continued nearly forty years.

(See "History of Woodborough," by Rev. W. E. Buckland, and "Lecture" by J. Marriott).

FREDERICK WARD, (d. 1873, aged 72), "for many years principal of a Boarding and Day School in this (Hucknall) parish. A man of considerable attainments, a strict disciplinarian, a character builder, and men now waxen old speak with deep respect of him." So says the local History, and the writer of these notes remembers the lessons on Nature, seventy years after the lessons were given. Mr. Ward conducted the school for about 40 years, and it was the only school of the kind for half a dozen parishes round Hucknall. His son, the Rev. Charles D. Ward, D.D., who became a Methodist Minister, the President of his denomination, and the Editor of a London Magazine, writing of his father's school says:—"My honoured father had a rare and remarkable way of throwing as much fascination around the school work that even long sessions seemed short, and hard lessons were not unwelcome." John Farmer, of Harrow fame, and the author of "Christ and His Soldiers," was a boarder at this school. The boarders attended at the Methodist Chapel on Sunday mornings, and the Parish Church in the afternoons. Mr. Ward was also a polished and acceptable local preacher: "the village seer" had a large family.

JOHN W. CURTIN, (1833-1908), was in 1861 appointed Head Master of the Nottingham Blue Coat School—being selected out of 288 applicants, and he justified the appointment, continuing for the long period of forty-six years. He put his whole soul into his work, and exercised a powerful influence for good upon his pupils, taking a personal interest in their well-being for years after they had left the school. He aimed at the development of a high standard of character, and with sympathy and kindness, joined with a sound judgment, strict discipline, earnest devotion to duty, and all tempered with a keen but kindly sense of humo'ur, his labours were highly appreciated. Two traceried windows and a brass tablet are in St. Peter's Church, where for thirteen years he was warden.

WILLIAM E. ROBINSON, (d. 1921, aged 67), was school master at Bestwood Park for thirty-eight years. He passed his examination at York Training College. His activities were considerable; for many years he was a Church of England Lay Reader, a Churchwarden, Ruri-decanal Councillor, Choir-Master, a Bible Class leader, a Band of Hope worker, an active member of the National Teachers Union, an Institute promoter, an occasional preacher in Nonconformist pulpits. As school master he was a character builder. It is said that no scholar of his ever appeared before the Magistrates. With a quiet, unassuming manner, he never spared himself, and to him Christ was before creed. He was buried in the beautiful Bestwood churchyard, and the church could not hold the mourners. The parishioners subscribed and put in the parish church a brass tablet "to commemorate his unfailing courtesy, and devotion to duty."

JOHN STEEDMAN, (1844-1921), was a schoolmaster, first at Sneinton, and afterwards at St. Ann's Council School, having in it nearly one thousand children, and he worked for fifty-two years. He kept the school in an efficient state, and devoted much of his leisure time to church work. For about thirty-five years he was secretary of the Ruri-decanal Conference, and attended almost every meeting, aiding also in penitentiary work, he being a Lay Reader, but his life-work was his devotion to the welfare of the children in his school. He was a man of wide reading, which he used for the benefit of the boys.

GEORGE MERCHANT, (1831-1923), was a school master at Sneinton, and afterwards at Wilford. He compiled "Examples in Arithmetic," carefully graded, each standard having its own grade, and printed in seven books. To show how well the work was done it may be stated that about three and a half million copies have been sold, for the work was adapted to the capacities of the children according to their ages and attainments, and there was printed separately answers for the use of teachers.

Gilbert, A., see "Families."