The brief, eventful life of Sneinton School Board
Part 2: 'A handsome building near the church'

By Stephen Best

THE FORMER SNEINTON BOARD SCHOOL, NOTINTONE STREET, in its last years. By this time the school had lost its bell-turret. (Photo: Jim Freebury).THE FORMER SNEINTON BOARD SCHOOL, NOTINTONE STREET, in its last years. By this time the school had lost its bell-turret. (Photo: Jim Freebury).

(Part 1 of this article described how the School Board came to be formed, and how a keenly-fought contest resulted in the election of its seven members).

SNEINTON SCHOOL BOARD met for the first time on November 25 1875. William Burgass was proposed as chairman by George Marsh and, the vicar seconding the proposal, elected unanimously. Unanimity, however, was to prove a rare thing in the Board's discussions, and Hutton, despite his comments in the magazine, must soon have been disappointed by the turn of events. The vice­chairmanship went to Marsh, though Hutton and Webster voted for Cropper, and the paid clerkship was offered to Edwin Browne, in the face of an attempt by the vicar, Webster, and Cropper to elect George Parr to the post; Parr was already clerk to Sneinton Local Board. Edwin Browne, of Imperial Buildings, Victoria Street, was a busy man, who also acted as secretary of Nottinghamshire Chamber of Agriculture, assistant secretary to Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club, and as vaccination inspector for the Borough of Nottingham. This first meeting of the School Board had shown how the battle lines would be drawn up; a majority of Burgass, Marsh, Stevenson and Collishaw usually outvoting Hutton, Webster and Cropper.

Much time was taken up in the early weeks of the Board in verifying just how many extra school places were actually needed in Sneinton. The vicar, unconvinced by the figure of 580 put forward by the Education Department, proposed that the School Board seek permission to test the accuracy of this estimate by means of a census. This was approved, and in February 1876 the Board reported that there were 2401 children aged from 3 to 13 in the parish. Of these 173 were half-timers at school, while 522 attended no school at all. The Education Department, however, refused to accept the total of 2401, claiming that it was too low, and the School Board, after discovering 'serious omissions' in its census findings, had to tell the Department that the correct figure now appeared to be 2547. The Department thereupon decided that this indicated a deficiency of 438 school places in Sneinton.

In the meantime, members of the School Board were busily staking out their individual positions. Cropper proposed that the Board ask to be relieved of its obligation to provide further school accommodation until more experience had been gained of operating a School Board in Sneinton. The vicar again insisted that the existing provision was adequate, and that the Board should not have to build a school until an increase in population, or some other factor, made it imperative. Collishaw, however, had no doubts, and proposed a motion that the Board considered it expedient and necessary to build a school. This was passed, and a Building Committee of the Board set up. Hutton was elected vice-chairman of this committee, but refused to serve on it. Local opinion seemed to be on his side, the Board receiving a letter expressing the views of a meeting of Sneinton ratepayers; that there was already sufficient school accommodation, and that the Board be urged not to build one. Significantly, perhaps, this letter appeared over the name of Nathan Pratt, one of the Sneinton churchwardens.

Now came a further, and decisive, complication. In April the managers of the Albion Day Schools wrote to inform the Board that they intended to close their school after an interval of two years, during which time they would be willing to let the Board run it as a temporary Board School. The Albion letter was signed by the secretary to its managers; this was none other than H S Cropper, who, like Vernon Hutton, was earnestly trying to wear two hats, as Board member and interested party elsewhere.

The Albion School building was accordingly transferred to the School Board on June 1 1876, Edwin Jefford of Bath Street Schools being appointed master of the boys' section of the Albion Temporary Board School at a salary of £90 a year. The Government's Education Department, however, did not take long in ruling that the Albion buildings were unfit for permanent use as a school, and in notifying the Board that the number of additional school places that Sneinton would have to provide was now calculated to be almost 800.

May 1876 saw the first mention of a possible site for the new Board School. A piece of land between Newark Street and 'a suggested new street' came under consideration, but Earl Manvers' agent, George Beaumont1, told the Board that there were 'insuperable difficulties' in making this land available for a school. The plan, therefore, was abandoned for the time being, while another site, in Carlton Road, was looked at. The new street referred to was an extension of Notintone Street, which at the time stretched only from Sneinton Road to Beaumont Street.

Now that the Albion School had begun its work, the July Church Magazine reminded its readers of the School Board's powers, which were substantial. The Board could compel attendance at school by all children aged 5-13, unless there was a reasonable excuse for non- attendance. Children over ten could be sent to school as half-timers if it could be shown that they were beneficially and necessarily at work, and over-10s could be excused attendance if they held a certificate from HMI stating that they had passed the fifth standard. Parents neglecting to send children to school could be fined up to 5/- (25p), but parents unable to afford the school fees, a maximum of 9d (3.5p) a week, could put their case to the Board, who had the power to pay the fees if the plea of poverty was well-founded.

The log-book of the Boys' School survives, and shows that by the end of the first month, Jefford had only 34 boys on his register, compared with 164 on the girls' and infants' register. It was decided to separate the older girls from the infants, and to establish two distinct departments. Miss Perry, hitherto mistress of the combined department, became head of the Infants' School, and Miss Sarah Hume was appointed to the Girls' School; both women received an annual salary of £70. By September Jefford's Boys' class had grown sufficiently for him to engage a new monitor, 12-year old George Spencer, as a teacher.

In August the Education Department turned down the Carlton Road site, and Cropper therefore moved that all possible effort be made to buy the land in Newark Street and Notintone Street from Earl Manvers. By now, though, a new site had attracted the majority on the School Board; this was vacant land, owned partly by the Earl, and partly by Raven Brothers, lace manufacturers, of Sneinton Road. It lay at the opposite end of Notintone Street, fronting on to Sneinton Road, just across the road from Notintone Place. This site aroused a fierce controversy. Lord Manvers objected, through his agent, that it was too close to the church and vicarage, and to 'a large and highly efficient school' - it must be remembered that the Church Schools then stood next door to the vicarage, on the land now occupied by the windmill car park. His Lordship also alluded to the probable early end of the Sneinton School Board, if the expected Borough Extension of Nottingham took place. The vicar and his Church School managers claimed that a Board School on the suggested site was 'likely in the course of time materially to injure, if not altogether to destroy' the Church Schools. Although the latter had been praised by HMI as 'among the best in the kingdom', the managers felt that a Board School, having the benefit of ratepayers' money, would enjoy an unfair advantage, and would also attract away some of the children who would pass it on their way up Sneinton Road to the Church Schools. Accordingly the Church School authorities determined to raise voluntary subscriptions for the building of further extensions, capable of accommodating 350 to 400 children. Earl Manvers had agreed to give the necessary land. The school managers believed that an enlarged Church School would make it possible for the projected Board School to be smaller than hitherto envisaged, and so allow it to be built on a less expensive site.

In his annual letter for 1875-76 to the congregation, the vicar had stated that the result of the School Board election had greatly influenced him in deciding to remain at Sneinton, when there were great pressures upon him to accept the family living of Spridlington in Lincolnshire. He explained that at this time of 'crisis in the Education question', he felt he had to stay and give what help he could in Sneinton. 'It would be out of place', he wrote, 'for me to criticise here the action of the Board, even if I were disposed to do so. Hitherto there has been but little difference of opinion amongst the members, and I trust that a solution of our difficulties is not far off.

There was indeed to be a speedy solution, though this was not apparent for a few weeks, during which the wrangling went on as before. The Education Department considered the objections put forward against the proposed Board School site, but felt that, while it was indeed very near to the Church Schools, it offered no threat to them. It was in some ways an advantage, said the Department, for the schools of a locality to be situated close together. The vicar nonetheless repeated his strenuous opposition to the plan, while the unsectarian majority on the School Board asserted that the Church School was overcrowded, and the Board School urgently needed. The Education Department responded by suggesting that a site at the far end of Notintone Street be examined; this was, apparently, the one previously refused by Earl Manvers. The Board, in a rare moment of unanimity, agreed that a Board School for 600 children could be erected here, while the Church School built additional classrooms for 280 pupils in Windmill Hill Lane2. Only Earl Manvers seemed less than content, but on November 8 1876 his agent hauled down his colours in a letter to the School Board: 'The site selected for School Board Schools is not one which we ever contemplated being compelled to give up for such a purpose but Lord Manvers directs me not to offer any further opposition'.

SNEINTON CHURCH SCHOOLS, WINDMILL LANE, not long before the new buildings were erected in the 1960s. (Photo: Jim Freebury).SNEINTON CHURCH SCHOOLS, WINDMILL LANE, not long before the new buildings were erected in the 1960s. (Photo: Jim Freebury).

The Rev. Vernon Hutton was, understandably, delighted, and in his magazine for December 1876 welcomed this arrangement, 'by which we shall avoid undue rivalry from the School Board, and at the same time materially strengthen our own schools'. He approved wholeheartedly of the plan to build the Board School on land bounded by Newark Street, Beaumont Street, and the extended Notintone Street; this, he said, though still near the Church School, was on a different road, and had a different approach. It was, he concluded, 'In reality far less of a rival than it would be if built at a greater distance in the heart of the population.'

Meanwhile the Albion Temporary Board School had been coping with one or two highly difficult pupils. The case of Isaac Armitage, aged 12, of Belgrave Square, Walker Street, had been put before the Board by the vicar. Though Isaac's habits were 'incorrigibly bad', Hutton pleaded for him to be given an opportunity of redeeming his character by attendance at the Board School. Very soon afterwards, however, the Board noted that the matter was now out of their hands, as the lad had stolen from his parents, and had subsequently been sentenced to four days imprisonment and a flogging. Two brothers, Henry and Herbert Allsopp, also proved unruly. Jefford recorded in his log­book that he had been obliged to punish Herbert, 'who proved more insulting and shouted boys' names in the school'. His mother was sent for, who revealed that her sons had not previously been to school for a year, and that Herbert had been under police supervision. Both boys were later reported as being of good behaviour. By November there were 72 on the boys' register, with an average attendance of 61.

As plans for the new Board School took shape, the Board found time to write to the Government, urging the setting-up of a Royal Commission to reform and simplify spelling. There was a wry appropriateness about this, as earlier in the year, the Board had been unable to tell the Education Department which was the correct and authoritative way to spell 'Sneinton'; at the time the simpler 'Snenton' still had its adherents. Characteristically, Cropper declined to be associated with the spelling proposal; he was usually determined to be his own man. December found Jefford logging a visit to the school by the parents' committee, who heard the boys sing, a performance judged 'very creditable'. On December 20 the School broke up for Christmas, each boy receiving an orange from William Burgass, the Board's chairman.

1877 was to be the last year of the life of Sneinton School Board. November 1, as foreshadowed by Earl Manvers, was the date fixed for the Borough Extension of Nottingham, under which Radford, Lenton, Basford, Bulwell and Sneinton became part of the town. From that date their local services and administration would be conducted from the Borough Offices, and the Local Boards and School Boards in the assimilated parishes would cease to exist.

The architects chosen to design the new Sneinton Board Schools were Clarke & Son, of Pelham Street, Nottingham. Both Robert Clarke, the father, and Robert Charles Clarke, the son, were for some years residents of Sneinton Road. Perhaps the best-known Nottingham works by the Clarkes were Lambert's factory in Talbot Street, St Ann's church in St Ann's Well Road, and the Nottingham Journal offices in Pelham Street; Clarkes had their own office in the last-named building. The design of Sneinton Board Schools was, it seems, the work of R C Clarke alone; his father was to die towards the end of 1877. By February the tenders for building the school had come in, the job being awarded to Henry Vickers of Wilford Road, whose bid of £5920 was the lowest. Vickers was also busy building the new extensions to the Church School, whose architect was J E Truman of the firm of Truman & Pratt. A resident of Belvoir Terrace, Sneinton, Truman was a worshipper at Sneinton Church, and would eventually become ordained as a Church of England clergyman.

The Board School log-book offers a fascinating glimpse of the culture of the day, in a list of songs learned by the boys during the year ending March 1877; 'The Blacksmith': 'As Oft in my Smithy': 'The Snow': 'The Hour of Prayer': 'The Stars': 'If I Were A Sunbeam': 'To us a Child of Hope is Born'. Somehow it is hard to imagine the boys whistling any of these in the street. A month later Edwin Jefford was able to record that the Boys' School was nearly full. The Board had successfully applied to the Public Works Loan Board for a loan of £8220, for the building and furnishing of the new school. In this, decided the Board, there would be classes 'for the teaching of cookery adapted to the requirements of the artizan population'.

An assistant mistress, Miss Chapman, was appointed at £40 per annum, and in June the Albion Board School was visited by HMI. Of the Boys' School they reported that 'a good beginning had been made'; exercises were fairly well done, apart from reading in the First Standard; grammar and geography were well done, and the boys were orderly, and sang nicely. The Girls' School was also commended, though their singing was 'entirely unskilled', and the work achieved in the Infants' School was 'very creditable'. The log­book noted 'a want of teaching power' at the Boys' School, the monitor having left to start work. A poor attendance on June 22 was put down to the counter-attraction provided by a Band of Hope demonstration in the Arboretum.

June also witnessed the opening of the new classrooms at the Church Schools. Hutton no doubt breathing a sigh of relief that he had got his new building before the ratepayers had to start repaying £8220 for the Board School.

Lord Newark, heir to Earl Manvers, performed the opening ceremony, at which a native of Nottingham, Canon Gregory (later Dean Gregory) of St Paul's Cathedral, spoke up for the Church's role in education. Tens of millions of pounds, he said, had been voluntarily subscribed long before School Boards were thought of. He advised the boys listening to him not to despise manual labour, 'for an intelligent artisan had a more comfortable and certain position than an underpaid clerk.' William Burgass, in his capacity of School Board chairman, was also present, as if to emphasise that peace had truly broken out amongst Sneinton's educational factions. The Church Magazine, in congratulating J E Truman on 'the very cheerful looking and useful set of buildings', conceded that: 'Of course we cannot pretend to boast of much in ornamentation, as we have no unlimited supply of funds to fall back on'. Was this, perhaps, a final dig at the supposed bottomless purse available to the School Board?

At the Board School, Jefford acquired an assistant master, Stephen Hume being appointed at a salary of £52 a year. Jefford was now getting £110 per annum (as well as the Boys' School, he had overall charge of the entire Board School) and Miss Penny and Miss Hume £75. Pupil teachers, it was decided, would receive £12.10s a year, with annual increments of £2.10s. The Board now turned its attention to the teaching of swimming, and were glad that the worthy Jefford, 'an excellent swimmer himself', had undertaken to take the boys to the public baths.

On August 13 the Albion Board School re­opened after the summer break, with only a few weeks to go before the new buildings were ready for use. The hapless Stephen Hume did not take long to run into trouble, a parent complaining early in September that Hume had used unduly severe punishment on his son. 'A child got into a rage and threatened to throw a slate at master's head', recorded Jefford; 'This led unwisely to further punishment'. The upshot was that the parent took out a summons against Hume, who was fined 21/- by the magistrates. The teacher also received a severe reprimand from the School Board, who did, however, accept that he 'was betrayed into an admission of being guilty of excessive punishment which deprived him of the opportunity of showing what provocation had been given.' The same meeting of the Board agreed on the appointment of a caretaker for the new school; R Knowles of Walker Street was to be paid 15 shillings a week, 'with house, gas, water and coals found'.

Reviewing the past year, in Sneinton Church Magazine for September 1877, the vicar publicly buried the hatchet of past disagreements on the School Board. Of the new extensions to the Church Schools, and the recently-built Board School, he wrote: 'I am quite satisfied with the settlement which has been arrived at. The Board has erected a handsome building near the church, which will not, I believe, in any way be a rival to our own schools: these have been immensely improved, and we may now consider the question of school accommodation for this part of the town to be set at rest for many years to come.'

We come now to September 10, the last day of the Albion Temporary Board School, and the day of the ceremonial opening of the new building. This event received close attention from the local press, the Nottingham Journal comparing Sneinton favourably with Nottingham; Sneinton School Board, it declared, 'has built a magnificent School in about as much time as it took the Nottingham School Board to talk about the matter.' The Journal did not gloss over disagreements during the Board's brief existence: 'Of course there was a good deal of opposition. The board consisted of seven members, three of whom for a considerable time offered a strenuous opposition to the majority, especially as to the present site.' There was nothing but praise for the new buildings: 'The schools are in a new street which forms a continuation of Notintone Place [the paper should have said Notintone Street], and they overlook the church and churchyard. The schools have been built under the superintendence and from plans executed by Messrs Clarke & Son, and they are admitted to be the handsomest set of buildings of the kind in the locality.' All those who had been involved in the work were complimented; Henry Vickers, the builder; Hodson and Facon, the stonemasons; W Flewitt, for plumbing, glazing and gasfittings; Goddard and Massey, who were responsible for wrought iron railings and gates, and installed the heating system. The Journal described the building in minute detail; each school, Boys', Girls', and Infants', accommodated about 210 pupils in one large room and two classrooms, and each had its own teachers' room. The caretaker's house was adjacent. 'The walls are of pressed brick with Bath stone dressings. The roofs are of red brick tiles with red ridges...The schools stand on a capital site on the slope from Sneinton Road, and cover an area of over 2,000 square yards. There is a frontage of over 232 feet to Notintone Street, and the building is broken by projecting gables, and traceried dormer windows. A lofty and handsome bell turret forms a pleasing feature in this design. The schools are very lofty, and well lighted, with open timbered roofs, stained and varnished; a dado of red deal, stained and varnished, extends around all the schools and classrooms.' Finally the paper commented on what it thought possibly the most remarkable feature of the building, the stone inscription on its facade. 'It may', remarked the Journal, 'be considered to be the epitaph of the Sneinton School Board'. Surmounted by a Bible and crown, the inscription read as follows: 'Sneinton Board Schools. These schools were built under the auspices of the first and only School Board for the parish of Sneinton. Date of election November 26 1875; amalgamated with the Nottingham School Board under the Borough Extension Bill October 31 1877. William Burgass, Chairman: George Marsh, vice chairman: Henry S Cropper: Alfred Collishaw: Thomas Stevenson: John Webster: Rev. Vernon W Hutton, Vicar of Sneinton: Edwin Browne, clerk: Robert Clarke & Son, architects: H Vickers, builder.'

On opening day, many local people looked round the new buildings, and tea provided for all the children by School Board members was served at the Albion School. All was now ready for the ceremony at 7 pm in the new Girls' School. In addition to the gentlemen of the Sneinton Board, those present included representatives of Nottingham Borough Council and Nottingham School Board. Several local clergymen were on hand, with other Sneinton worthies.

The proceedings, as reported in the Nottingham Journal and Nottingham Guardian, exuded sweetness and light. William Burgass assured his hearers that the Board Schools would be of great benefit to Sneinton. £8000 might seem a lot of money, but it had been borrowed at a very low rate of interest, and ratepayers had fifty years in which to repay it. Moreover, said Burgass, under the Borough Extension Act, the cost would be spread over the whole of Nottingham, so Sneinton residents ' would never feel burdened with the cost'. Reviewing the two years of the Board, and its internal struggles, he admitted that its members found that 'they had fallen into a bed of nettles.' A hard-fought battle had ensued, 'but he was glad to inform them that no lives were lost and no blood shed.' Following the decision that the Albion School was not fit to be considered for use as a permanent Board School, however, the members had reached an amicable arrangement and 'an unanimous vote, which was a very rare thing at a School Board.' Burgass was delighted 'that in finding as able an architect as Mr Clarke they had not to go out of the parish' ; he congratulated architect, builder, and teaching staff, and said how pleased he was at the noticeable increase in attendances at all Sneinton schools over the past eighteen months.

In reply, Edward Gripper stated that, as chairman of Nottingham School Board, he would be proud to accept the school in a few weeks' time, when it became part of the Borough's education system. He was sure it would prove good value for money. Speaking next, Henry Cropper observed that, when Sneinton School Board ended its life on October 31, he would 'go to the grave not only as a corpse but as a mourner.' He was grateful that his name appeared on the commemorative tablet on the schools, but wished that the inscription could have included the words: 'They did their duty.' He advised the children, particularly the boys, to be careful in their choice of books. Although 'he did not eschew light reading or novels, it was like light food and light wine, sufficient to a certain degree, but not for all the purposes they required'. Cropper ended by expressing his horror at the foul language frequently uttered by children in public places, and hoped that increased education would help to stamp out this evil.

The Rev. Vernon Hutton, heavily jocose, remarked that when he first saw the inscription tablet on the frontage of the Board Schools, he thought it was a tombstone which had strayed out of the churchyard. As members of Sneinton's only School Board, he and his colleagues might in time become valuable, like pieces of old china. The Board had, he said, certainly left their mark on Sneinton, in 'these beautiful buildings.' The vicar freely admitted that he had at one time considered the new schools unnecessary, and 'was not ashamed to own he had quite altered that opinion, there having been such an extraordinary increase in the attendance during the last two years.' It was often thought that clergy were automatically opposed to Board Schools, he said, but he could not see why the two systems could not work side by side, and regretted 'that friends showed such a party spirit on the educational question.' Hutton closed by thanking his fellow Board members for their courtesy and kindness to him, and by indicating that he would, if elected, be glad to serve on the enlarged Nottingham School Board. Winding up the speeches, Councillor Henry Baines, of the Nottingham Board, agreed fervently with H S Cropper about the way in which 'their ears were shocked by the language they heard in the streets, and called upon parents to mind their language in the presence of their children.'

On October 29 1877, Sneinton School Board met for the last time, the final statements showing that the Nottingham School Board would inherit from it liabilities of £8828. The loan for the building of the school made up the greater part of this sum; other items of note during the previous year had been £457 for teachers' salaries, and £173 for cleaning, and the purchase and repair of furniture. Henry Cropper, independent to the end, had another engagement and could not be present. He wrote, however, to Burgass, thanking him and George Marsh for their work as chairman and vice-chairman. Alfred Collishaw then moved a vote of thanks to Burgass for the admirable way in which he had filled the difficult office of chairman. With further expressions of appreciation to the vice-chairman and the clerk, Sneinton School Board passed out of existence.

For the November Sneinton Church Magazine, the vicar wrote an admirable epitaph upon Sneinton's administrative independence. 'The 1st of November, 1877, is an important date in the history of Sneinton. Although it will retain its name and position as a separate parish, yet from that day it loses its local self government, and becomes merged in the great Borough of Nottingham. It is in many ways a gain that we should feel ourselves a part of a large and flourishing town. For the first time, also, our parishioners are called upon to share in the election of members of the Town Council. It is not in the province of this magazine to press an opinion upon the merits of the gentlemen who are seeking the votes of the ratepayers. We can only hope that those will be elected who will bring credit to the town, and will work their best for the moral and social welfare of its inhabitants. Among the many deaths to be recorded on November 1st is that of the Sneinton School Board. We are happy to be able to state that its end was peace. It is highly probable that a new School Board for the whole borough will be elected before the end of the present month.'

When, on November 28, the election for the Nottingham School Board took place, Vernon Hutton was the only former member of the Sneinton Board to secure a seat on it. On November 1, however, Alfred Wilson, Chairman of the Sneinton Board School managers, had been elected to the enlarged Borough Council as a councillor for Manvers Ward, while H S Cropper was similarly successful in Trent Ward, and would, in time, become Sheriff of Nottingham. His old School board ally John Webster, though, failed to gain election to the Borough Council. Finally, William Burgass was elected an aiderman of Nottingham Corporation.

And what of the two schools which were for a year or two the object of such division and rivalry in Sneinton? Like most of their kind, the Church Schools were not taken over by the School Board. When that body ceased to exist in 1903, however, they, together with other voluntary schools, came under the Local Education Authority, being known at various dates as Sneinton Trust School, Voluntary School, or Church of England Primary School. In 1968 new buildings were opened higher up in Windmill Lane, a few hundred yards from the premises so fiercely fought for in the 1870s by the vicar. With Local Government Reorganisation in 1974, responsibility for the school passed to the County Council.

As Sneinton Board School, the 1877 building in Notintone Street began its 26 years under Nottingham School Board. Subsequently, while administered by the City's Education Committee, it was named Sneinton Council School, then Sneinton Primary School, and is now William Booth Infants' School. At the end of the 1960s, plans were announced for the replacement of its once-admired Victorian buildings, and today it is housed, like the Church School, in pleasant modern premises. The present building occupies part of the site of the old school, and of the Sneinton Church Institute, which stood further up Notintone Street. The site of the junction of Beaumont and Notintone Streets now lies under the school.

Though responsible today for the education of a smaller age-range than in the day of the Rev. Vernon Hutton and the Sneinton School Board, both schools continue their long tradition of teaching the children of Sneinton.

THE SITE OF THE BOARD SCHOOL IN 1994. Behind William Booth Infants' School rises Kingston Court. (Photo: Stephen Best).THE SITE OF THE BOARD SCHOOL IN 1994. Behind William Booth Infants' School rises Kingston Court. (Photo: Stephen Best).

For access to books and documents I am grateful to the staffs of Nottinghamshire Local Studies Library, Nottinghamshire Archives Office, and the Department of Manuscripts, Nottingham University. My special thanks again go to the Rev. Derek Hailes and Joyce Hather, for unfailing kindness in letting me see historical material stored in Sneinton church safe, and for always making it easy for me to do so.

1. After whom Beaumont Street was named.
2. Shortly afterwards renamed Windmill Lane.