The lower or west end of the way, commencing at what we now know as Mansfield Road, was for about 280 years, but perhaps more, known as Fox Lane, for in the Records, vol. v., p. 152, there is as follows: "Item, for hewinge downe both the ways; without Chappel Barr, and at Fox Lane end, V li. XIII s. IIII d." (£5 13s. 4d.). This was in 1632, and would probably be equivalent to nearly £40 in recent times. It was a short lane, of moderate width, reaching only to what is known as Windsor Street on the right and Huntingdon Street on the left, and on that side near the north-western corner in my recollection the ground has been considerably lowered. There were a few houses at each of the lower corners, and on each side for a distance above and below Fox Lane, the ground near to the back streets was, in 1829 and also later, used for gardens.

Having passed through the lane and across the back street (the upper part of old Sandy Lane), a narrow roadway was entered, certainly not more than was needed for a cart to easily pass along, and enclosed with hedges. On the left there were two fields, one a very long one, and to the right were four fields. Nearly one-third of the way and the last part was proportionately much wider than the first portion, and called Goose Wong Lane, and as near as I can estimate, it ended on the hill near to Cranmer Street, or Robin Hood Chase, as now formed. A stile was then crossed, after which a mere line being shown through a number of fields accords with my remembrance, and proves that there was at that part a footpath only, by which to reach the upper end of Red Lane, and the last hill to Mapperley Plains or, as formerly entitled, Mapperley Hill Common, from unenclosed land there.

In 1850, on 15 July, the Nottingham and Grantham Railway was opened by the Great Northern Railway Company, their station and yard being, as some old people will know, in that portion of the Meadows then called the East Croft. It was a part liable to be flooded, and consequently to raise the ground sufficiently over so large an area as the station yard, etc., an enormous quantity of soil, etc., was required. I have often thought that the Company, when in consultation with the town authorities respecting surplus soil, held out some inducement for them to undertake the work of forming this now excellent road, and that it no doubt benefited in its gradients, etc., by the urgent demand for the superfluous clay or soil. At any rate, the work of lowering and regulating the ground, as advisable, permitted of many thousands of cartloads being taken to the station, with great advantage to both station and road. The latter, allowing for the hills, is on an equality with any road in Nottingham, and from a mere footpath over a large portion of its length has become the main outlet in that direction to the country, and is used by trams.

It was, I believe, about 1852 when "Mapperley Road" was formed, and its union at its upper end with Old Red Lane occurred, at a short distance before reaching the last hill, as one goes towards Mapperley. This avenue, commencing on the top of Mansfield Road, was an excellent alternative and easier route from that locality to the plains. Respecting Red Lane, it was an old road, and until recent times was in that part on the northern verge of the town lands. It was often, in past years and wet seasons, used most unwillingly, but except a poor line of way by St. Ann's Well, in my remembrance, there was no other for selection.

The road was but partially made and little attended to, therefore its condition in wet weather was most wretched, and in years long passed I have heard maledictions, both loud and frequent, vented upon it, and at intervals in each year I have seen carts with nearly a hundred-weight of clay adhering to each wheel after passing through it. When thoroughly and properly formed, about 1870 or a little later, possibly, Red Lane, as a title, was superseded by "Redcliffe Road," and another excellent route to Mapperley provided. The junction of the three highways to Mapperley Plains from Mansfield Road occurs at, or near to, the foot of the last hill when going up, and this was formerly a continuation of old Red Lane to the Plains.

The next part to be brought under notice will be what is now known as the Market Place, together with some of the adjacent thoroughfares, etc. It is referred to in the Records, vol. i., pp. 366-7, in 1214 and 1287, as "the Saturday Market" (Forum Sabbati), and "Market-sted" on p. 410, 1396. The term "Saturday Market" in former times made it clear that it could not apply to the market at Weekday Cross (Forum Cotidianum), for the markets were held there on five days in each week (commencing on Monday). The town was divided into two boroughs by the Normans—French and English—and as shown on Thoroton's and other old plans, the Market Place was divided by a wall, breast high, into two parts ; the French mainly to the south and west, and English to the north and east.

The wall, in which there was a number of openings (Thoroton shows nine) commenced near to but below Bargate (Chapel Bar). It was somewhat curved, and ran within a short distance of where the Exchange now stands; it remained until 1713, when it was removed. There were once two Town Halls—one, English (Mont Hall) in Weekday Cross, and the other, French, at the corner of what is now called Wheeler Gate and Friar Lane, which was known as Mothall or the Moothall. From 1448, by the important charter of Henry VI., Nottingham had one mayor, though composed of two boroughs, but it had two sheriffs, two coroners, two sets of juries, and two chamberlains, and so continued until 1835, when a new Act of Parliament came into force.

Facing p. 3, Deering, in his history, gives an excellent illustration of the last opening left in the town wall; it was Chapel Bar, and remained until 1743, when it was removed. The road near but below it was called Bar-gate, which was most appropriate, but altered to Chapel Bar, the name of the opening in the wall. In the Records, vol. i., p. 43, Bargate is referred to about 1250; in 1395 it is termed Barregate. Until quite within living memory I have seen reference in various ways to "Outside Bar," or "Outside Chapel Bar," and in the 18th century it was frequently applied to the land which was often termed "waste" when not built upon. Outside the Bar two centuries or a little more ago, there was a tollhouse, and from it the lower part of the road acquired the name of Toll House Hill, which it retained until about 1855, when it was included in Derby Road.

Some allusion will be made to what is now known as Mount Street. Its old designation was Bearward Lane, and I have satisfactory proof that the change occurred in the year 1800, for in 1799, Willoughby, in his rare little Directory, alludes to it as Bearward Lane, but on my large unique plan of Nottingham, which circumstances prove to have been brought out the year after the Directory, it is called Mount Street. This was derived from Derrymount, a well known hillock once on the ground near the top, and the site of which now belongs to the infirmary, but it was a poor substitute for the ancient term, which explained itself, and if changed to "Bearward Street" would have been far preferable to the present inept and unmeaning title.

It was an old historic name, see Records, vol. i., p. 428, where it is mentioned in 1315 as "Berewordlane." It was in former times the residence of the town bear-keeper, and termed Berwardlane, Berewodlane, etc., at varying dates. On the page just referred to above, the following will be found: "Bearwardlane, now called 'Mount Street,' known as Bearward Lane in Deering's time." Undoubtedly this is true, but not the whole of the truth. Deering died in February, 1749 (see Date Book), but it is called Bearward Lane in Willoughby's Directory in 1799, or fifty years after his death. Then while writing I have before me a book respecting an interment "in Bearward Lane Nottm 20 May, 1804," which shows that the name was still used at that time, but in my young days it was not uncommon to hear old people allude to Bearward Lane in conversation, and an old lady I knew well, who died 1874, aged 94 years, always called it Bearward Lane.

St. James's Street represents an old way, and in former times was entitled Seynt Jame Lane, Vicus Sancti Jacobi, Seynt Jamgate, Sent Jacobs' Lane, etc. There is little of historic note attaching to it, though known many centuries since. Respecting this and the previously mentioned street, there is an interesting reference in the Records, vol. i., p. 440, as follows: "A.D. 1315, a messuage in Vico Sancti Jacobi next the lane which leads towards the Berewordlane (Mount Street)." There is still what is called "Thoroughfare Yard," between the two streets, which is probably the road alluded to 600 years ago, but shewn on the unique plan of the year 1800.

On that plan (A.D. 1800) it is called St. James's Street, "lane" being discarded, but it is James's or St. James's Lane in Willoughby's Directory of 1799, the latter being used most frequently. At these dates, on its southern side, the street, beginning from the Market Place, was built upon for less than half its length. A considerable portion of the upper part on the south side belonged to the Duke of Rutland, two fields being shown which are called Rutland Gardens, from which it will be understood how the names for Rutland Street, Granby Street, etc., were obtained.

In the Records, vol. iv., p. 433, 1587-8, Angel Row is noticed, and is therefore not a very modern name. Respecting what is now termed Beast Market Hill, its old names were Frere or Frer (Friar) Row. Thoroton (1667) calls it Fryar Row, and Deering, Beast Hill (1749), but my unique plan in 1800 entitles it Beast Market Hill.

For many years, in my remembrance, when cattle were sold on Wednesdays in the Market Place, the sheep pens were placed near to Beast Market Hill, and on three sides of the north-western portion of the Market Place, for a number of years previous to the removal of the cattle market to where the Guildhall now stands, iron sockets were sunk in the ground. In these, wooden posts were fixed, standing about five feet above the ground; a number of holes were bored through them, ten or twelve inches apart, in which strong ropes were inserted. The market stalls were then fixed in the part nearest to the Exchange. Previous to the use of posts and ropes, cattle frequently encroached on the pavements, etc., and occasionally entered a shop.